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Gen Z Asian women in media (both journalistic and social) are more acutely aware of representational tropes in media. Netflix's blissfully unaware "Partner Track" has broken the dam for the new generation.

2023.03.31 02:58 Sacreblargh Gen Z Asian women in media (both journalistic and social) are more acutely aware of representational tropes in media. Netflix's blissfully unaware "Partner Track" has broken the dam for the new generation.

It's kind of insane to see all this play out in the last year.

Take a look at these 2 offerings from Netflix and how much online discourse has grown in just a span of 4 years.

To All the Boys I've Loved Before
Remember this made for Netflix movie? Released literally 2 days after Crazy Rich Asians made its premiere, it elicited quite the response from Asian American audiences.
One of the biggest topic of note was the protagonist's love interests consisting of 4 white males of the 5 "loves" and zero Asian male representation.
It really started with this article (dated August 18, 2018) from Indiewire and authocreator Jenny Han's quote:
“I understand the frustration and I share that frustration of wanting to see more Asian-American men in media,” she said. “For this, all I can say is this is the story that I wrote.”
You can argue and make the case (back then) that Han had a reasonable answer for the lack of Asian male rep in her film. She's also stated this in the same article:
“More means more representation, more viewpoints, more stories, and I want to see that. I think also, as I continue on and get more clout, I’m committed to that as well. So I do understand the animus behind [the criticism], and I do want to see that happen for people. I think it’s important to just keep pushing for more and to get the doors to open wider.”
Sounds pretty ok I guess?
Well, some Asian women in journalism decided this criticism was invalid and just a simple result of typical "angry, bitter Asian men".
First came this piece from Seventeen magazine (dated August 24, 2018) titled: Lana Condor Gets Real About The Racist Backlash Against "To All the Boys I've Loved Before"
"You are being racist unknowingly and continuing to put us in a box that we don’t need to be in. It’s really unfair. People should be able to love who they want to love. It’s offensive to me — you’re continuing to promote tribalism. So I can’t be with who I want to be with? These are probably the same people who have an issue with the LGBT community. It’s the same thing — you telling me who I can love is unfair," she said.
Then came this bizarre rant (dated September 9, 2018) titled "Peter Kavinsky Is White And I’m Glad"
It’s starting to feel like people are literally CANCELING OUT HALF OF WHO LARA JEAN IS, and I’m NOT OKAY WITH IT. My whole life I’ve struggled with never fitting in to one group or another, not being Asian enough for the Asians, being too Asian for the whites, and it’s total bullshit. Lara Jean and I are BOTH ASIAN AND WHITE. Being white does not cancel out being Asian, and being Asian does not cancel out being white. Does not cancel out the half of Lara Jean who is the exact same race as Peter Kavinsky.
Here's another one courtesy of BitchMedia (their own magazine title, dated September 11, 2018) titled "To All the Double Standards We’ve Seen Before" where writer Laura Sirikul frames the criticism of exclusion of Asian males in media a "double standard". She took note of the recent pairings of East Asian and South Asian men in media, but neglected to bring up the pairing of white male/asian female couplings that FAR exceeded any number of amxf pairings in the media. She also failed to examine the most recent trend of Asian women writers, directors, producers, creators, etc having a say in writing mainly love interests who are straight while males.
The very idea that every film featuring an Asian woman should include an Asian love interest reinforces the misguided notion that Asian women “belong” solely to Asian men.
Here's another think-piece courtesy of The Daily Cal (dated September 21, 2018), where the author almost has a grasp at the situation, then takes a hard right into familiar talking points.
Once “To All the Boys I’ve Loved Before” asserts the desirability of white men at the expense of Asian men, as other articles have also noted, it becomes impossible to ignore another phenomenon in the movie’s utopic world: There are no Asian men love interests. With the exception of queer, Black Lucas, all of Lara Jean’s five crushes are white. In fringe online forums with a barely tamped down “incel” bent, a growing number of Asian-American men spew their disgust and bitterness for WMAF (white male/Asian female) relationships. Asian women in these relationships are “white worshipping,” “self hating” and have “internalized racism against Asian men.” “To All the Boys I’ve Loved Before” is exactly the kind of movie they resent most.
Now... that's just a taste of what 2018 was like. That was also the same summer when a notable Asian American woman author wrote a piece in the Cut magazine about "mrazns". So yeah, back then you could write an entire article with basic premise of "Asian males are bad, here's 22 reasons why" and you'd get a front page stamp by any editor in town.
Now let's take a look at the latter half of 2022.
Partner Track
“Partner Track” falls short in its attempt at representation – El Estoque (September 22, 2022)
“To All the Boys I’ve Ever Loved Before” and “Partner Track” have strikingly similar plot threads: both Lara Jean and Ingrid Yun primarily pursue white male love interests. Even in the original book “Crazy Rich Asians,” Rachel Chu’s friend mentions that Rachel has never dated an Asian man before Nick. The trend of East Asian women ending up with white partners has occurred since the first instances of Asian representation in media — dating back to Chinese American actress Anna May Wong’s depiction of the sexually exotic Asian women in the silent film era. This issue is rooted in the fact that whiteness has always been implicitly perceived as superior in Western media — putting Asian women with white love interests plays into white superiority by portraying that only white men are deemed desirable, thus reinforcing racism against Asians.
Why aren't there more Asian couples depicted in mass media? – AsAmNews (September 23, 2022)
Users on social media have critiqued Partner Track for continuing the trope of pairing an Asian female lead with a White male love interest. According to Associate Professor and Chair of Sociology at San Diego State University Minjeong Kim, interracial relationships have been a significant part of Asian American history, owing to the migration patterns of Asian men and women. Anti-immigration laws that limited Asian women from migrating caused many Chinese immigrants to engage in relationships with women outside their race. Then later, Asian women were able to migrate as “war brides” and “mail-order brides.”
“Gina Marchetii’s 1994 book, Yellow Peril, looks at movies that came out in the early and mid-20th century, and even then, all you could see were Asian women with White men, and the underlying message that was delivered was how Asian characters are unassimilable. They are ‘too foreign’ to be incorporated into American society unless they are paired with White characters,” Kim said to AsAmNews. “This idea of ‘forever foreigners’ associated with Asian Americans was reinforced by these images.”
The frequency of the Asian woman and white male pairing, says Professor of Anthropology and Asian American Studies at Northwestern University Shalini Shankar, is also a reflection of male patriarchal power dynamics.
“My feeling [on this pairing] is really a mental vestige of either colonialism or imperialism because that is such a familiar trope from either U.S. conquests in East Asia … or Britsh colonialism in India and the Middle East. There is a longstanding occupation of White men in these countries interacting rightly or improperly with Asian women,” Shankar said to AsAmNews. “That sort of pairing is longstanding: you never see the opposite depicted. We’ve all been socialized to think this is normal. This is the way that the world has been taken over in terms of male patriarchal power dynamics and we haven’t transcended those patterns yet.”
Why Aren't There More Asian Couples On Screen? - Representasian Project (October 4, 2022)
“As Hollywood reckons with a lack of representation on screen and behind the scenes, having an Asian woman deciding between two white men [in ‘Partner Track’] left me wondering why there are so few Asian love stories on my TV.”
I understand that may seem small considering all the other challenges facing our protagonist. But as Hollywood reckons with a lack of representation on screen and behind the scenes, having an Asian woman deciding between two white men left me wondering why there are so few Asian love stories on my TV.
Don’t get me wrong, I have nothing against dating outside one’s race. But at a time when the Asian community continues to grapple with racism and violence largely fuelled by the pandemic, having a love story between two Asian characters is something that should be celebrated and seen. What’s reflected on screen plays a role in normalizing our existence as Asian people as multifaceted beings. I can’t help but think Partner Track could have delivered much more.
Given their success, it’s clear there’s tons of appetite for Asian-led stories. But with the exception of Crazy Rich Asians, I can’t help but notice the common trope of pairing Asian women with white love interests. And oftentimes, it’s at the expense of men of colour.
In both To All the Boys and The Summer I Turned Pretty, protagonists Lara Jean Covey and Isabel (Belly) Conklin are portrayed as biracial Asian American women who are grappling with their romantic prospects. Spoiler alert: both end up with white love interests in the end. But throughout the series, we see them considering their futures with men of colour.
Ultimately, we discover these boys don’t stand a chance against the male leads — who happen to be white men— and get their hearts broken. They’re soon forgotten about and become an afterthought in the series.
Interracial casting in Hollywood isn’t as progressive as we think it is - The Georgetown Voice (October 24, 2022)
The big and small screens are no stranger to white-man/Asian-woman couples, from Lane Kim and Dave Rygalski in Gilmore Girls to Lara Jean and Peter Kavinsky in To All The Boys I’ve Loved Before (2018). Such tropes, however, hold problematic implications for the overall perception of Asian identity.
Asian men, on the other hand, have been portrayed by the media as romantically undesirable and awkward, often used as the funny sidekick or the butt of the joke due to a lack of social awareness or nerdy and unkempt appearance. Some advances have been made in reimagining this stereotype— with the casting of Simu Liu in Shang-Chi, for example— but the old overarching depiction still sticks. Conversely, white male characters are written to be the charismatic and conventionally beautiful “knights in shining armor” that come in at the climax to save the girl. Today, these stereotypes might be less obviously relayed in film and television, but there is no denying their underlying presence and historical significance.
Chinese Students Association hosts actor Arden Cho as fall speaker - Daily Northwestern (November 8, 2022)
Near the end of the event, Han and Huang opened the dialogue up to the crowd for a Q&A session. One audience member asked about the criticism Cho faced for the alleged “white man and Asian woman” romantic trope in “Partner Track.” Cho, tearing up, said she hasn’t felt fully supported by the Asian American community due to the backlash.
She said retirement may be on the table, both because of this controversy and Netflix’s recent announcement that “Partner Track” would not return for a second season.
“As Asian American actors and actresses, we have all this pressure to represent our entire community with every single project,” Cho said. “But please remember that we’re just storytellers and artists. If we do represent our community, then great, but I don’t think it always has to be everyone’s story because it can’t be.”
Are Wasians Truly Asian Representation? — GenZHER (December 26, 2022)
Arden is fully Korean. The two male leads in the drama series are white. There is a male character that Arden interacts with who is Asian, but he is not a lead. A lot of viewers were also hoping that Arden’s characters got with Z (the Asian male character), but that was not the case. Obviously this decision is not Arden’s fault. Yes, there can be healthy relationships between white males and Asian women,but the white male and Asian woman dynamic possesses many underlying issues. It is tiring to see that kind of relationship within the media, especially with its dark history.
American soldiers use to hold camp towns where they would use East Asian women as sex toys. “As wars ended, many American troops came home with their wartime perceptions of Asian women as submissive and sexually available.” (Lang & Cachero). There is even a term to describe someone who has a fetish for East Asian women: yellow fever.
... Can you sense the palpable, differing tones in just 4 years?
And not just Asian women journalists or writers. Even non-Asian women are sensing what has been the obvious tropes.
The Partner Track: A Fun Quick Binge With a Cliche Story
The story starts strong, with Ingrid kicking ass at work and standing toe to toe with her pretentious white colleagues in a male-dominated legal profession, so she has to be as slick and clever as her male counterparts. Ingrid does this well…better, and you’re rooting for her the entire time.
Unfortunately, the story starts to go in a cliche route when Ingrid runs into a person with whom she had a one-night stand. From there, the story continues with unsaid feelings and Ingrid making her situation even more complicated with a love triangle between two wealthy white men. Yes, I said it, but unfortunately, this is where the story loses me. I liked the attempt of having a “diverse” cast, the power of friendship between Tyler (Bradley Gibson) and Rachel (Alexandra Turshen) and a woman of colour kicking ass at her job. I didn’t love that Ingrid’s only two love interests were white. Or the fact that there was a lack of addressing the racism that occurred in this series.
Motion To Dismiss 'Partner Track,' Your Honor
Ruth Etiesit Samuel: Upon seeing the trailer for this series, I’ll admit I was upset. Since the “Teen Wolf” era, I hadn’t watched Arden Cho in a regular series role in ages. When the series was announced on Deadline, I was expecting a more serious, “HTGAWM” approach — not another story about a woman of color stuck between two random, medium ugly white men. Marina, you’ve read the book “The Partner Track,” which the series was adapted and it’s supposedly heralded in law schools, per the book’s description on Amazon. What are your thoughts?
Partner Track review from Common Sense Media writer Monique Jones
To top it off, Ingrid appears to date only White men, with another friend (Alexandra Turshen) even making a joke that she has dated more Asian men than Ingrid. The statement, plus the optics, takes a ton of wind out of Partner Track's message. Of course, you don't need to date within your race to be considered down with your race, but it's strange when the main character seemingly wants to live in a fantasy of the White gaze and engage in racial politics only when it's relevant to her success.
Nextshark, the Pan-Asian website, posted the trailer on Instagram. Do yourself a favor and scroll by earliest first and take note of just how many Asian American women, yes, women have lampooned the premise. The days of just falling in line and being happy with what we're given are absolutely over.
To end this piece, here's an interview conducted by Abbey White for show-runner Georgia Lee in an edition of the Hollywood Reporter. In it, Ms. White explicitly asks her directly about the trope.
Abbey White: Rom-coms sort of feel primed for discussion about race and gender because those things are baked into societal discussion around desirability and visibility — onscreen and off. This leads to the question of Ingrid’s love interests. She’s with Nick and Murphy, two white men, but there’s also Z, an Asian man, who really feels like an option for her, but isn’t framed as one in the same way. Did you want audiences to feel like he was a love interest for Ingrid or is that just a byproduct of viewers reading into something?
Georgie Lee: Oh, yeah, I mean, it’s so funny. When I read some of the stuff online, where they ask, “Were they thinking about…” And it’s like, of course, we were thinking about that! (Laughs.) And honestly, I was concerned with being way too obvious about it. We didn’t want to be too intentional because we want to explore more in future seasons, so you can’t use up all your story. But we were so hyper-conscious. We’re absolutely aware. I know what the poster looks like. It’s an Asian American woman with two white dudes. Of course, we’re so deeply aware of that and, in fact, that is part of the message which is why we couldn’t say anything pre-launch because we didn’t want to give anything away. You don’t want to give away Murphy’s twist. The message, the theme, the emotional journey of Ingrid is that she starts out in a place where she’s not aware. So she has to learn stuff while she is living in this white patriarchal power structure. Part of her is very unconscious to it and so part of her subconsciously believes — and it’s what we’ve been conditioned by all the media and everything in our entire lives to feel — is that if she somehow is part of that white power structure, she’ll be safe. She’ll feel safe. She doesn’t consciously realize that it also is a product of the environment she’s in because the white man is in charge at the law firm.
This is the poster plastered on billboards in Hollywood and Times Square that Georgia Lee was talking about here. Whether you buy the answer as authentic or an attempt at damage control considering the backlash from Asian American audiences... guess that's up to the individual.
How quickly the narrative can change once time passes. I have high hopes for this current group of Gen Z Asian women can turn the tide against the willful ignorance of the previous generations in our community.
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2023.03.30 19:22 eitca Travel Guide For Those Who Want To Do Backpack In India

Travel Guide For Those Who Want To Do Backpack In India
India is a land of diverse cultures, traditions, and stunning landscapes. As a solo traveler, India offers an immersive experience that will leave you with unforgettable memories. In this article, we will provide a traveler guide in India for solo travelers, including the best places to visit, how to drive as a tourist, and how to obtain an international driver’s license.
Best Places to Visit as a Solo Traveler
India is a country with a rich history and cultural heritage. As a solo traveler, you can explore the many facets of India’s diverse landscape. Here are some of the best places to visit in India:
  1. Jaipur: Known as the Pink City, Jaipur is a must-visit destination for solo travelers. With its stunning palaces, vibrant markets, and delicious food, Jaipur offers a unique cultural experience.
  2. Goa: Goa is a popular beach destination for solo travelers. With its stunning beaches, water sports, and vibrant nightlife, Goa offers a perfect blend of relaxation and excitement.
  3. Ladakh: For those seeking an adventure, Ladakh offers breathtaking landscapes, stunning monasteries, and challenging treks.
  4. Agra: Home to the iconic Taj Mahal, Agra is a must-visit destination for solo travelers who want to explore India’s rich history and architecture.
Best Places to Drive as a Tourist
Driving in India can be an adventurous experience. However, some places offer a picturesque view that will make your road trip memorable. Here are some of the best places to drive in India:
  1. Manali to Leh: The Manali to Leh road trip is one of the most scenic drives in India. With stunning views of snow-capped mountains, lakes, and valleys, this road trip offers an unforgettable experience.
  2. Mumbai to Goa: This coastal road trip offers stunning views of the Arabian Sea and lush greenery. With plenty of stops along the way, including beach towns, forts, and temples, this road trip is perfect for solo travelers.
  3. Bangalore to Coorg: Known as the Scotland of India, Coorg offers stunning views of rolling hills and coffee plantations. The drive from Bangalore to Coorg is equally stunning, with winding roads and lush greenery.
How to Drive as a Tourist in India
If you’re planning to drive in India as a tourist, there are a few things you should keep in mind. Here are some tips for driving in India:
  1. Drive on the left side of the road: In India, people drive on the left side of the road, so keep this in mind when driving.
  2. Be aware of local laws: Each state in India has its own driving laws, so be sure to research the laws of the state(s) you’ll be driving in.
  3. Be patient: Indian roads can be crowded and chaotic, so be patient and keep your cool.
How to Obtain an International Driver’s License
If you’re planning to drive in India and you have a valid driver’s license from your home country, you may not need an international driving license India. However, if your license is not in English, it’s a good idea to obtain an international driving Permit India, which will allow you to drive in India without any language barriers. To obtain an international driver’s license, contact your local automobile association or driving school.
How to Hire a Car or Bike In India
If you’re not planning to bring your own vehicle to India, you can hire a car or Bike from any of the major rental car companies, such as Avis or Hertz. To hire a car, you’ll need a valid driver’s license and a credit card. You may also be required to purchase additional insurance, depending on the rental company’s policies.
Best Place for Long Drive
If you’re looking for a long drive in India
India, there are plenty of options to choose from. Here are some of the best places for a long drive in India:
  1. The Golden Quadrilateral: This 5,846 km highway connects India’s four major cities – Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. The route passes through several states, offering a glimpse of India’s diverse landscapes and cultures.
  2. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway: This 94 km expressway is known for its scenic views of the Western Ghats. The route is dotted with plenty of pit stops, including restaurants, cafes, and scenic viewpoints.
  3. The Chennai-Kanyakumari Road Trip: This 720 km route takes you from Chennai to the southernmost point of India, Kanyakumari. The route passes through several cities and towns, offering a glimpse of South India’s rich culture and history.
India is a country with a diverse range of experiences for solo travelers. Whether you want to explore India’s rich cultural heritage, relax on stunning beaches, or go on an adventure, India has something for everyone. Driving in India can be a challenging experience, but with patience and caution, it can also be a rewarding one. Just remember to obtain the necessary licenses and insurance before hitting the road. Happy travels!
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2023.03.27 23:42 playspolitics House bill would have a chilling effect on free speech, constitutional experts warn.

House bill would have a chilling effect on free speech, constitutional experts warn.

House bill would have a chilling effect on free speech, constitutional experts warn.

“There will be no protection for people like that, no protection for anybody who wants to get involved in their community or voice their opinion.” — Barbara Petersen, First Amendment lawyer
“There will be no protection for people like that, no protection for anybody who wants to get involved in their community or voice their opinion.” — Barbara Petersen, First Amendment lawyer
Florida Republican legislators now less than three weeks into the rule-making eight-week 2023 legislative session in Tallahassee are preparing to break faith with almost 60 years of American jurisprudence established by the Supreme Court in 1964 to protect free speech. Following a public discussion criticizing media and a call to legislators to rein in its excesses by Gov. Ron DeSantis last month, the legislators took steps to do that, introducing a bill that would allow politicians and other government officials or public figures to sue any critics they claim defamed them — without having to prove actual malice if the critics point to behaviors or events arguably unrelated to the job: extra marital affairs, for example, or possible business deals.
In another striking break with precedence, the bill says anybody who accuses an official of discrimination “against another person or group because of their race, sex, sexual orientation, or gender identity” has automatically defamed them, whether or not the allegation is true.
Not only that, but the bill would allow elected leaders and officials to claim “religious expression or belief,” or “scientific beliefs” — the phrase itself may be an oxymoron — and thus sue anyone who challenges publically their comments or actions aimed at lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender or queer people, or religious groups such as Jews or Muslims, for example. Such actions described as part of a leader’s religious expression or belief, or scientific belief, “cannot be considered evidence of discrimination” in the proposed bill.
In addition, anonymous sources including background sources speaking off the record for news reports — of the kind that exposed the Nixon Watergate scandal in 1973 or first exposed former President Clinton’s affair with a White House intern in 1998 or played a role in reporting former President Trump’s extra marital liaisons in more recent years, for example — would be presumed false in any lawsuit.
The losing side, defendants who criticized officials and got the thumbs down from the courts, would have to pay attorney fees and costs. That’s an English court-system tradition, not an American tradition. Here, each side pays its own costs, a condition much less likely to inhibit those without deep pockets from speaking their minds in public.
Florida would be the first state in the nation to take such an action if legislators pass House Bill 991.
Sponsored by Rep. Alex Andrade, R-2, and co-sponsored by Rep. Mike Beltran, R-70, the bill advanced through a civil justice subcommittee into the justice committee of the House last week. That’s part of the process that brings a bill forward to a vote, if committee members approve, in the full House of 120 legislators before the session wraps up on May 5. Bills passed in a full vote by the Legislature must then either be signed into law or vetoed by the governor. The new law would take effect July 1.
“Gov. DeSantis likes the quote: ‘Freedoms are worth fighting for.’ Well, that’s right, they are. And this bill takes away freedoms I fought for — and a lot of other people around Florida did, too. To me 991 has more than a chilling effect on people’s right to say things — to be quoted or to blog or whatever.” — Dick Batchelor, former state legislator and now president of Dick Batchelor Management Group Inc.
“Gov. DeSantis likes the quote: ‘Freedoms are worth fighting for.’ Well, that’s right, they are. And this bill takes away freedoms I fought for — and a lot of other people around Florida did, too. To me 991 has more than a chilling effect on people’s right to say things — to be quoted or to blog or whatever.” — Dick Batchelor, former state legislator and now president of Dick Batchelor Management Group Inc.
A similar bill, SB 1220, had not been heard as of last week by any committee in the 40-member Senate.
Neither Representatives Andrade, a graduate of the University of Florida School of Law, or Beltran, a Harvard Law School graduate like the governor, returned Florida Weekly requests for comment by press time.
Gov. DeSantis, speaking last month, called for legislators to “protect” citizens from so-called false narratives created by media outlets.
“When the media attacks me, I have a platform to fight back,” he said. “When they attack everyday citizens, these individuals don’t have the adequate recourses to fight back. It would contribute to an increase in ethics in the media and everything if they knew that if you smeared somebody — (if) it’s false and you didn’t do your homework — then you have to be held accountable for that.”
Federal law, based on the 1964 case Sullivan vs. The New York Times, already provides recourse for public figures defamed by media who can demonstrate the presence of malice — an intentional lie. But it protects mistakes by media, made without malice. That’s what happened in the famous Supreme Court case, based not on a news story but an advertisement.
A group of civil rights leaders criticizing the treatment of protestors by police in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1960 took out a full-page advertisement in The New York Times. The ad appeared in print with some minor errors. The Public Safety Commissioner in Montgomery, L.B. Sullivan, felt he’d been defamed and sued the paper, even though he wasn’t named in the ad. The case went to the Supreme Court, which decided by a vote of 9 to 0 that such errors, absent of malice, were protected speech.
In other words, Americans criticizing public figures or agencies have a right to be wrong if their mistakes are not malicious, a view that free-speech apologists and critics of HB991 say protects Americans from all walks of life and political viewpoints — not just professional journalists on the left or right. It encourages citizens to speak freely and to express opinions in good faith, whether or not unpopular, without fear of reprisals that could break them personally or financially.
Current situation
Currently, for example, Fox News is relying on Sullivan vs. The New York Times to defend itself in a $1.6 billion defamation lawsuit filed by Dominion Voting Systems, Inc. Fox continued to broadcast claims the 2020 presidential election was stolen after broadcasters and managers knew those claims to be false, Dominion alleges, pointing to emails or texts from host Tucker Carlson and other Fox employees.
Knowingly and therefore maliciously, Fox broadcast false claims that the company’s voting machines contributed to Trump’s 2020 loss, according to Dominion.
Whether that is the case remains to be decided. But under traditional American law, if the Fox broadcasts were not malicious, even if they were wrong, the company cannot be punished for defamation.
“Dominion and its private equity owners join a long line of public figures and corporations across the country that have long tried to silence the press and this lawsuit from Staple Street Capital-owned Dominion is nothing more than another flagrant attack on the First Amendment. FOX News will continue to fiercely protect the free press as a ruling in favor of Dominion would have grave consequences for journalism across this country,” a spokesperson for FOX News told Florida Weekly.
A multitude of observers, meanwhile, have expressed both incredulity and alarm at HB991.
“Anybody who comes within arm’s length of this bill can recognize that it’s an assault on democracy and free speech,” said Linda Penniman, a former Naples city councilwoman and now president of the board of trustees at the Florida Center for Government Accountability.
“Because Florida has such a broad open records law this is particularly villainous for Floridians — to have our freedoms infringed upon this way. Of all the states, the Sunshine State should not be infringing on free speech,” she added.
“The sponsors of this bill (Andrade and Beltran) must have missed the lecture in their law schools on constitutional law and the First Amendment,” said Peter Bergerson, a professor of public affairs at Florida Gulf Coast University. Early in his teaching career, Professor Bergerson had the late radio talk-show host Rush Limbaugh, then a young college student, in a government class he taught. Mr. Limbaugh made a highly successful career as a rightist political pundit, Professor Bergerson suggested, in part because of protections afforded to Americans by Sullivan vs. The New York Times.
In Article 1, Section 4 of the Florida Constitution, “Freedom of Speech and Press,” these orders appear: “No law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions and civil actions for defamation the truth may be given in evidence.”
The Florida Constitution reflects and echoes the U.S. Constitution.
“I’m not an attorney, but I subscribe to opinions widely held by constitutional scholars and lawyers that this bill would violate the U.S. Constitution,” Professor Bergerson added.
One of those lawyers, Carol LoCicero, a principal of the Tampa-based First Amendment law firm Thomas & LoCicero, traveled to Tallahassee to attend the meeting of the subcommittee on civil justice in the capitol last week, and offer some guidance.
“What I said at the hearing was this: Most of 991 is unconstitutional. It violates our Florida Constitution as well. There are many aspects of this bill that are plain rotten public policy.
“No state legislature can enact laws that violate the First Amendment. Here, we’re not just speculating about issues under the Bill of Rights. Here we have multiple bodies of case law well-tested out over decades, and this violates a lot of those cases.”
Additionally, she pointed out, malice is not the only constitutional problem with the bill.
“There’s a presumption in the bill that says, if you used an anonymous source that’s presumptively false.
“Frist of all, anonymous sources often provide incredible critical information that prompts societal change, and gets at abuses of power — in all kinds of things. To say that’s presumptively false is just not good for society.”
And not just in politics, she insisted.
“There are all levels of anonymous sourcing, such as people who are regular sources who give reporters information on background, information that’s important just to understanding how agencies work.
“And think of all the ‘Me Too’ cases and people who kept their mouths shut publically because they were afraid of powerful men like Harvey Weinstein and Matt Lauer and Charlie Rose. Anonymous sourcing is important.”
First Amendment implications
Barbara Petersen, a longtime First Amendment lawyer in Florida and now executive director of The Florida Center for Government Accountability, warned that “this bill will have a huge impact on everyday people who are just posting to their Facebook page or Twitter feed. It will have a huge impact on organizations and Fox news kind of people who make assertions and add opinions to their reporting quite regularly. It will get everybody. It’s not about big media.”
One of the most troubling aspects of HB991 in her mind is the prescription to force a defendant who gets sued by a public figure under a new law, and loses, to pay potentially huge and prohibitive attorney fees and court costs.
“They’re flipping things, it’s like who pays in a SLAPP lawsuit,” she said. SLAPP is an acronym for strategic lawsuit against public participation, an effort to intimidate or silence critics who can’t shoulder the costs of their own legal defense and have to drop their criticisms or censor themselves into silence.
“One of the first articles we ever published was about a woman in the Florida Panhandle being sued for defamation by a developer because of a Facebook post,” Ms. Petersen said.
“Rather than becoming a rarity, that will become common with this law. The developer had been known for building in flood zones, and somebody posted they’d bought a house from this developer. The woman’s Facebook reply was as innocuous as, ‘Oh, hope you have good flood insurance.’
“There will be no protection for people like that, no protection for anybody who wants to get involved in their community or voice their opinion.”
Passage of the proposed HB991, she predicted, would result in Florida becoming a destination state not just for the tourists but for the litigious.
At the Florida First Amendment Foundation, executive director Bobby Block, himself a Republican, he noted, worried that some people likely to be lit up by the high beams of this legislation haven’t gotten the message.
“Conservatives in the media sector are very worried by this bill — they see it as a blunt instrument that will impact them as much as anybody else, or more,” he said.
“But, they’re between a rock and hard place.
On the one hand, they’re afraid of this bill if it becomes law. But on the other hand, don’t want to get crosswise with Gov. DeSantis. So they’re gently trying to send signals that they’re concerned, but trying to do it in a soft way.”
That gives rise to his biggest concern.
“Most worrying to me: All the news coverage isn’t really reaching conservative audiences. And so, in many ways, if this does force changes in programming and other things by media outlets, there will be a lot of very upset voters amongst the base in Florida because of how this could impact their viewing and listening habits.”
On his report card, therefore, the bill fails.
“The full bill is horrendous, a blunt instrument, largely unconstitutional. It would have a terrible impact on every media sector: traditional media, liberal media, mainstream and conservative media and social media.
“Anybody who picks up a pen or a microphone or sits at a keyboard, would have to be extraordinarily careful with what they write, print or post.”
Dick Batchelor, a former state legislator and now president of Dick Batchelor Management Group Inc. based in Orlando, consultants in business development, government affairs and public policy, also is a Marine Corps veteran of Vietnam and the bloody Tet offensive of 1968. He traveled to Tallahassee to deliver his opinion about the bill to legislators, in part because he takes it personally, he said.
“Gov. DeSantis likes the quote: ‘Freedoms are worth fighting for.’ Well, that’s right, they are. And this bill takes away freedoms I fought for — and a lot of other people around Florida did, too.
“To me 991 has more than a chilling effect on people’s right to say things — to be quoted or to blog or whatever.
“One thing I learned in the Legislature: The Legislature does not have the power to pass legislation in direct conflict with federal law, I don’t care what it says. That’s No. 1. No. 2, the bill stymies the public’s right to speak out against officials.”
HB991, together with what Mr. Batchelor and others call “the blogger bill” — that’s SB 1316 sponsored by Sen. Jason Brodeur, R-10, requiring bloggers who write about the governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general and some other officials to register with the state — would create a tyranny he calls Orwellian, a reference to George Orwell’s iconic look at tyranny in the novel, “1984.”
“It’s Orwellian to have a package of legislation that in total basically disarms the public of their constitutional rights of free speech,” he said.
“They already passed this in 2014 — Putin passed it, in Russia. Anybody blogging about Putin or the government has to register.” Gov. DeSantis has said he doesn’t support SB 1316.
But in America, and in the Sunshine State, Mr. Batchelor asks, “Why not give as much respect and deference to the First Amendment as you do to the Second Amendment?”
That’s not happening, though. Instead of insisting the government get its hands off American rights as it is doing in newly proposed legislation now before the legislature to take away the current requirement for gun permits, and to reduce the minimum age of gun purchases from 21 to 18, the government is putting its hands all over the First Amendment, seeking to control not guns but speech, he suggested.
As Mr. Block at the Florida First Amendment Foundation concludes, “This is not a Democratic issue, a conservative issue, a liberal issue or a Republican issue. It’s a First Amendment American issue touching everybody.
“Supporters of the Second Amendment are always careful to precisely parse the words in the Second Amendment. Let’s do that with the First Amendment.”
One more thing, he noted:
“The Founding Fathers did not write, ‘we want an accurate press, a trustworthy and hardworking press, a kind and compassionate press.’ Instead, they talked about a FREE press. The right to be sometimes idiotic, but free. An open marketplace of ideas that everyone could be part of. A mix of the sublime and the ridiculous.
“We’ve been doing this for almost 250 years.” ¦
In the KNOW
HB 991: Defamation, False Light, and Unauthorized Publication of Name or Likenesses
GENERAL BILL by (Alex) Andrade ; (CO-INTRODUCERS) (Mike) Beltran
Defamation, False Light, and Unauthorized
Publication of Name or Likenesses; Provides that journalist’s privilege does not apply to defamation claims when defendant is professional journalist or media entity; revises provisions concerning venue for certain actions; provides for attorney fees & costs to prevailing plaintiffs in certain actions; specifies certain persons may not be considered public figures; provides certain allegations are defamatory per se; provides statutory damages to prevailing plaintiffs who are subject of such allegations; creates presumption that statement by anonymous source is presumptively false; provides public figure does not need to show actual malice to prevail in defamation action.
Effective Date: 7/1/2023
What the state’s constitution says
The Florida Constitution exists, according to the preamble, “to secure its benefits, perfect our government, insure domestic tranquility, maintain public order, and guarantee equal civil and political rights to all…” There are 12 articles. In Article I, “Declaration of Rights,” there are 27 sections that include definitions of “basic rights,” “religious freedom,” “the right to assemble,” and others.
This is Section 4, Freedom of Speech and Press:
“Every person may speak, write and publish sentiments on all subjects but shall be responsible for the abuse of that right. No law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions and civil actions for defamation the truth may be given in evidence. If the matter charged as defamatory is true and was published with good motives, the party shall be acquitted or exonerated.”
Lee County Legislative Delegation:
Rep. Jenna Persons-Mulicka, R-78, chair. Tel: 850-717-5078 (Tallahassee); 239-338-2328 (Fort Myers).
Sen. Kathleen Passidomo, R-28, senate president. Tel: 239-417-6205 (Naples), or 850-717-5082 (Tallahassee). Email: Passidomo. [email protected].
Sen. Ben Albritton: R-26. Tel: 850-487-5027 (Tallahassee); 941-575-5717 (Punta Gorda); 863-534-0073.
Sen. Jonathan Martin, R-33. Tel: 850-487-5033 (Tallahassee); 239-338-2570 (Fort Myers).
Rep. Mike Giallombardo, R-79. Tel: 850-717- 5079 (Tallahassee); 239-772-1291 (Cape Coral).
Rep. Spencer Roach, R-76. Tel: 850-717-5076 (Tallahassee); 239-656-7790 (North Fort Myers).
Rep. Adam Botana, R-80. Tel: 239-949-6279 (Bonita Springs), or 850-717-5080 (Tallahassee). Email: [email protected]
Rep. Tiffany Esposito, R-77. Tel: 850-717-5077 (Tallahassee). No district contact is listed at the state website,
General contact form for the Lee delegation:
Collier County Legislative Delegation:
Rep. Bob Rommel, R-81, chair. Tel: 239-417- 6200 (Naples) or 850-717-5081. Email: Bob. [email protected]
Sen. Ana Maria Rodriguez, R-39. Tel: 305- 470-2552 (Doral); 850-487-5040 (Tallahassee). Email: [email protected]
Rep. Adam Botana, R-House District 80. Tel: 239-949-6279, or 850-717-5080. Email: [email protected].
Rep. Lauren Melo, R-82. Tel: 239-417-6270 (Naples); or 850-717-5082. Email: Lauren. [email protected].
Sen. Kathleen Passidomo, R-28, senate president. Tel: 239-417-6205 (Naples), or 850-717-5082 (Tallahassee). Email: Passidomo. [email protected].
Charlotte County Legislative Delegation:
Sen. Ben Albritton, R-26. Tel: 850-487-5027 (Tallahassee); 941-575-5717 (Punta Gorda); 863-534-0073.
Rep. Michael Grant, R-75: Tel: 850-717-5075 (Tallahassee); 941-613-0914 (Port Charlotte).
Rep. Spencer Roach, R-76: Tel: 850-717-5076 (Tallahassee); 239-656-7790 (North Fort Myers).
Palm Beach County Legislative Delegation:
Sen. Tina Polsky, D-30. Tel: 850-487-5030 (Tallahassee); 561-443-8170 (Boca Raton). Email: [email protected].
Sen. Gayle Harrell, R-31. Tel: 850-487-5031 (Tallahassee); 772-221-4019 (Stuart). Email: [email protected].
Sen. Bobby Powell, D-24. Tel: 850-487-5024 (Tallahassee); 561-650-6880 (West Palm Beach). Email: [email protected]. gov.
Sen. Lori Berman, D-26. Tel: 850-487-5026 (Tallahassee); 561-292-6014 (Boynton Beach). Email: [email protected].
Rep. John Snyder, R-86. Tel: 850-717-5086 (Tallahassee); 772-210-5626. Email: John. [email protected].
Rep. Mike Caruso, R-87. Tel: 850-717-5081 (Tallahassee); 561-650-1066 (West Palm Beach). Email: [email protected]. gov.
Rep. David Silvers, D-89. Tel: 850-717-5089 (Tallahassee); 561-357-4824 (Lake Clarke Shores). Email: [email protected]. gov.
Rep. Joseph Casello, D-90. Tel: 850-717- 5090 (Tallahassee); 561-292-6015 (Boynton Beach). Email: [email protected]. gov.
Rep. Kelly Skidmore, D-92, Tel: 850-717-5092 (Tallahassee); 561-470-2086 (Boca Raton). Email: [email protected].
Rep. Katherine Waldron, D-93. Tel: 850-717- 5093 (Tallahassee); no district phone listed. Email: [email protected]. gov.
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2023.03.26 16:07 Stenv2 Ah da Shipping.

Ruby: ...
Stenv: What's wrong kiddo?
Ruby: Hnn
Stenv puts down a giant pillow next to the depressed character.
Ruby: Everyone is talking about Bumblebee this, Bumblebee that. But here I am... still miserable... the writers are implying a sacrifice needs to be made to leave Ever After, presuming it isn't a lie...
And what if it's Jaune?
Stenv: Shrugs Could be. Or it could be Neo, blah blah lackluster redemption. It depends on what happened to the brother. Maybe he became something else? Who knows, unfortunately, shippers are weird.
Ruby: Aren't you one?
Stenv: Honestly... not really. I mean I kinda was with you and Penny. But aside from that not really.
Ruby: But FemShep and Garrus? Elise and Goliath, and Sonic and Sally...?
Stenv: To quote a badass friend of mine.
Those aren't ships.
Ruby: Huh?
Stenv: There was no Ship to be made... if it's already set sail.
Ruby: Oh... Ohhhhh
Stenv: Frankly now comes the hard part. The baiting is done. Now they have to write an actual relationship.
And well... we've seen how well that goes.
Ruby: I mean... why is it so hard to write relationships?
Stenv: Weird viewpoints, I mean hell most comic folks believe that their audiences could never relate to Peter Parker if he's happily married, has kids, and so on. And yet people fucking love Spider-Verse 2 Peter Parker with his kiddo.
They love how PS4 Spidey made one of the hardest choices he ever had to make.
But in the end, the writers of the comics have no choice but to lay in the bed they made.
For your show though?
Yeah no. I don't care about Yang and Blake, not even this Relationship, which is what it is now, that the baiting and teasing are over. Like I just don't care about either of their characters at all.
Most of the interesting stuff is no longer there. Just empty platitudes. And if there were no other gay couples in the show? They would be the token gay couple. That's how generic they are.
Ruby: Huh... What about... the rest?
Stenv: There's no substance to any of it. Even as much as I loved you and Penny, you were never going to be more than friends and I was perfectly fine with that. You were great friends. Probably the best chemistry and dynamic.
And then it's over. Just to recreate Beacon.
Ruby: If Jaune does die... will I be allowed to mourn him?
Stenv: Hard to say, kid. I would hope so. But that's only if he does die, the death flags are seemingly there. But it's hard to tell.
Ruby: If that's all that happens, then this whole volume was...
Stenv: Pointless yes. Bad enough the fall of Atlas didn't need to happen, but if all the point of this whole damn thing is more tragedy and uuu sacrifice, with no maiden or some other MacGuffin, then frankly it's one of the few things I would without hesitation gut out, and wouldn't mind stuff like Fixing RWBY skipping over entirely.
At this point, I am tempted to just make up whatever the fuck I want about Vacuo. Because there's nothing crucial to this volume at all.
It's pure filler and not the fun kind. The pointless kind.
Even the Bount Arc from Bleach at least had some fun, and for a while was acknowledged in the main show.
Ruby: So... that's all you have to say about Shipping.
Stenv: Yep but hey, take some credit there. Nuts and Dolts and one other Ship is the only one I've ever actually shipped for.
Ruby: What's the other?
Stenv: Whisper and Tangle.
Ruby: Who?
Stenv: Whisper is someone you would like. Especially with your current state, she would be a major role model. God, I wanna do more Sonic RWBY crossover shit.
Cardin: Hey hey what's up-
Stenv holds up a picture of Faunus Vanilla the Rabbit, Cream's mom, headcanon aunt of Bunnie and Velvet.
Cardin: GASP!
Clutches his heart for he has seen the holy land... a Bunny Faunus Milf. He dies with a massive smile on his face.


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2023.03.26 04:05 MeraidiaSky11 Costco Travel Website Needs an Update

Costco Travel Website Needs an Update
this is advertised with a July 2023 departure. although it seems they are leaving the port off their itinerary, it's hard to read about the beauty of St. Petersburg thinking about Mariupol.
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2023.03.26 03:56 MeraidiaSky11 Costco Travel needs to update their cruise destinations

Costco Travel needs to update their cruise destinations
Shocked when I saw this on their website with a July 2023 departure. The itinerary shows they are actually not docking in the terrorist state. Bad enough to read the tourism copy about the museums of St. Petersburg remembering Mariupol.
submitted by MeraidiaSky11 to LoveForUkraine [link] [comments]

2023.03.25 12:47 alexsinha Paragliding Aims To Allow You To Fly Through The Skies Of Varkala

Paragliding Aims To Allow You To Fly Through The Skies Of Varkala
“Professional instructors make sure of an exciting and secure paragliding experience”
Paragliding in varkala

Tours offer paragliding in Varkala

A little town in the state of Kerala in southern India, Varkala is famous for its breathtaking beaches, peaceful scenic beauty, and amazing cliff views. But many aren’t aware that Varkala is also a well-liked holiday spot for adventure lovers who enjoy flying high in the sky.
You guessed it, paragliding in Varkala is what I’m referring to. Varkala gives a one-of-a-kind chance to parachute over the mountains and beaches while taking in the breathtaking views of the Arabian Sea and Kerala’s gorgeous landscape. You will have lifelong memories as a result of this once-in-a-lifetime adventure.
First, on rocks near Varkala beach, paragliding is performed in Varkala. Because of the amazing views of the Arabian Sea, the town, and the surrounding hills, the area is perfect for paragliding. It is a thrilling and unforgettable experience because the take-off point is on the mountain and the landing point is on the beach.

Best Places in Varkala

Tourists looking for a refreshing vacation enjoy visiting Varkala, a beautiful coastal town in the southern Indian state of Kerala. Varkala has something to offer everyone with its perfect beaches, breathtaking cliffs, and ancient sites. We will explore some of the must place to visit in Varkala.
  1. Varkala Beach: Varkala Beach is the main attraction of the town and is famous for its natural beauty and peaceful atmosphere. The beach is surrounded by towering cliffs and is dotted with numerous restaurants and cafes that serve delicious seafood and other local delicacies.
  2. Janardanaswamy Temple: Janardanaswamy Temple is an ancient Hindu temple located in Varkala. The temple is dedicated to Lord Vishnu and is believed to be around 2000 years old.
  3. Sivagiri Mutt: Sivagiri Mutt is a spiritual center located on a hilltop in Varkala. The center was established by the social reformer and philosopher Sri Narayana Guru and is dedicated to his teachings.
  4. Varkala Cliff: Varkala Cliff is a scenic cliff that overlooks the Arabian Sea. The cliff is dotted with numerous shops, cafes, and restaurants that offer stunning views of the sea.
  5. Kappil Beach: Kappil Beach is a secluded beach located around 6 kilometers from Varkala. The beach is known for its natural beauty and serene atmosphere.

A Guide for Budget Travelers

Varkala Beach is a beautiful and popular tourist site in Kerala, India’s southern part state. Paragliding is one of the many sports available to guests here, and it provides beautiful views of the beach and nearby scenery. This page will go through the price of paragliding at Varkala Beach.
The Varkala beach paragliding cost varies according to a variety of parameters. This 10–15 minute flight typically costs between INR 3000 and INR 5000 per person. This can, however, vary depending on the time of year, demand, and the service you pick.

The Best Time to Go Paragliding

The fee for paragliding is likely to be higher during peak season (December to February) due to increasing demand. Similarly, during the off-season (June to August), its price may be reduced due to lower demand. It is Varkala worth visiting mentioning that wind speeds play a part in deciding the cost of the paragliding, as operators may have to cancel or reschedule flights due to inclement weather.


The adventure activities sport of paragliding in Varkala provides a singular viewpoint of the town, the mountains, and the sea. Varkala has grown to be a well-liked holiday spot for Indian paragliding at Varkala lovers due to its pleasant weather, qualified instructors, and stunning scenery. All adventure enthusiasts can participate in it, and it will provide you with lifelong memories that you will treasure. Flying through the air, feeling the wind in your face, and viewing the world from a new angle are all incredibly thrilling experiences. You will have memories from this activity that you will treasure forever.
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2023.03.24 07:31 alexsinha Taking Flight In Vagamon: Paragliding Adventure At Its Best

Taking Flight In Vagamon: Paragliding Adventure At Its Best

Experience The Rush Of Adrenaline With Safe And Exciting Paragliding In Vagamon

Paragliding In Vagamon

Skydiving in Kerala’s Stunning Landscapes

Skydiving is an adventurous activity that involves jumping out of an airplane or helicopter from a high altitude and free-falling before opening a parachute to land safely on the ground. Kerala is a beautiful state in southern India, but it does not have any skydiving facilities available for tourists or locals.
However, there are other exciting adventure sports available besides skydiving in Kerala such as trekking, kayaking, canoeing, rafting, paragliding, and surfing, to name a few. These activities can be enjoyed in the scenic locations of Kerala, such as the Western Ghats, the backwaters, and the beaches.
If you are interested in adventure sports, you can check out some of the adventure tour operators in Kerala who offer these activities. They can provide you with the necessary equipment and trained guides to ensure your safety while enjoying the thrill of the sport.

A Beginner’s Guide to Tandem Paragliding in India

Tandem paragliding is a popular adventure sport that involves flying in a paraglider with an experienced pilot. The pilot sits behind the passenger in a harness, and they both use the same wing to wash. Tandem paragliding is a great way to experience the thrill of flying without any prior experience or training.
Kerala is a scenic state in southern India with several beautiful locations that offer tandem paragliding experiences. Vagamon, located in the Idukki district, is a popular destination for tandem paragliding. The hilly terrain and picturesque landscapes of Vagamon provide an excellent environment for paragliding.
Tandem paragliding in Kerala is usually offered by adventure tour operators, who provide all the necessary equipment and trained pilots to ensure your safety. The best time for tandem paragliding in Kerala is from September to May when the weather conditions are favorable for flying.

From One Hill Station to Another: Vagamon to Munnar Distance

The Vagamon to Munnar distance in Kerala, India, is approximately 65 kilometers (40 miles). The driving distance between these two destinations is around 2 hours, depending on the route and traffic conditions. The road from Vagamon to Munnar passes through beautiful landscapes and hilly terrain, providing travelers with breathtaking views of the Western Ghats. There are also several attractions along the way, such as waterfalls, tea plantations, and scenic viewpoints, making the drive between Vagamon and Munnar a memorable experience. Additionally, there are also local buses and taxis available for those who prefer not to drive themselves.

A Photographic Journey: Stunning Vagamon Images that Tell a Story

Vagamon is a picturesque hill station located in the Idukki district of Kerala, India. Known for its pristine natural beauty and breathtaking landscapes, Vagamon is a popular tourist destination that attracts visitors worldwide. The hills, valleys, meadows, and forests of Vagamon offer a unique experience that is both calming and exhilarating. In this article, we will take a closer look at some of the stunning Vagamon images that showcase the beauty of this serene destination.
The lush green hills of Vagamon covered in misty clouds are a sight to behold. The rolling hills, covered in tea plantations, are a feast for the eyes. The tea plantations provide a stunning contrast against the clear blue sky and the greenery around them. One can witness the tea pickers at work while enjoying the scenic beauty of the landscape.
One of the most stunning Vagamon images is that of the Kurisumala Ashram. The ashram is located atop a hill and is accessible only through a steep and narrow path. The view of the Ashram from a distance is awe-inspiring. The ashram is surrounded by lush greenery, and the view from the top is simply breathtaking.

In conclusion

Vagamon is a stunning destination that offers a unique blend of natural beauty, adventure, and peace. The Vagamon paragliding provides a glimpse into the serene atmosphere that this hill station has to offer. The natural beauty of Vagamon is a testament to the wonders of Mother Nature, and it is a must-visit destination for anyone looking to escape the hustle and bustle of city life.
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2023.03.22 02:26 menorahman100 Secrets of Da Vinci's The Last Supper

Secrets of Da Vinci's The Last Supper
The theme we will address has never attracted as much attention as it does in the current days. The recent success editorial of the book "The Da Vinci Code" by Dan Brown instigated the imaginary, through a narrative that involves all of these matters related to the life of Christ questioning and presenting conjectures and theories, some credible and many others, in my view, without a lot of reasons, such as the mention of the work of Leonardo Da Vinci, "the Last Supper".
Before we talk about the meaning of Leonardo's work, let's quickly address some aspects of his life to understand the context in which all his work developed.
Leonardo was born in April 1452 in Vinci, a village near by the Florence, son of Piero da Vinci, a notary, and a servant. Leonardo was an illegitimate child, having no rights to his father's estate. But his father, zealous, did not abandon him, having assumed his creation. We must remember that Leonardo was born in the middle ages.
The end of the middle ages is determined by the fall of Constantinople in May 1453. Of course the change from one period to another does not occur through a single event. This is a process of transition that involves multiple events.
With the end of the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance, with the resurgence of the appreciation of man as a factor of relevance in all contexts. Begins Humanism, a movement that revolutionized the thought, emerging new concepts and worldviews. This new concept is a precursor of specialization of knowledge, resulting later in the systematization of human knowledge, with scientism and segregation of knowledge that until then was unified.
Leonardo is more a medieval wise man than a person aligned with trends Renaissance because he was not restricted in specifics knowledge like other geniuses contemporaries geniuses. He had a broad knowledge. He was not only a painter. He was a sculptor, musician, architect, engineer, inventor, anatomist, and also an astrologer, although his biography does not to mention about the universe of hidden knowledge. In short he had a universal knowledge. In all areas he left the mark of his genius.
When he turned 14, his father had placed him as an apprentice in the arts studio of Verrocchio who was a great master of Florence. The art workshops held not only artistic works such as paintings and sculptures, but also construction of buildings, bridges and works of engineering, metallurgy, war machines, everything that required creativity of man to make some kind of artifact.
Leonardo soon excelled in all these arts, having participated in the production of a painting by Verrocchio, by order of Lorenzo Medici, ruler of Florence. He did paint an angel face on a canvas and the delicacy of the lines and the play of light, called the attention of the Medici family, who came to protect him. At this time, the success did not depend on talent, but especially the figure of a protector, a Maecenas.
The Italian peninsula, at that time, was a region of many disputes, without the identity of a country, which has consolidated only in the second half of the nineteenth century with Garibaldi. There were city-states, which they lived in strife. Wars were fought systematically, in order to solidify the power of the clergy. In this context, a war was deflagrated against Florence, promoted by the Vatican, for there were many interests of political composition, dominance, hegemony and economic supremacy.
Leonardo facing this situation, after serving the powerful others, as the Borgia, for example, just moving to Milan, had offered his services to the Duke Ludovico Sforza. Just to get an idea of the talents of Leonardo, he presents his resume as primarily military engineer, as he liked to be recognized, Architect, Builder Weapons, inventor, musician and at the end of the list of qualifications is painter and this is just his ability is that Duke engages him. Ludovico became the new protector of Leonardo.
Among the many works that Leonardo executed custom Ludovico is the "Last Supper." The work should decorate the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie. The work began in 1495 and was completed in 1497. In reality it did not complete. By the way, no work of Leonardo, except St. John and baby Jesus was completed. Were several lawsuits filed against Leonardo because he did not fulfill contract. Leonardo spoke "creation is divine, execution is slavish!"
The Last Supper was painted on the walls of the hall and Leonardo developed a new technique. It is often said that it is a fresco, but in reality a fresco is a painting done on a layer of newly applied plaster still wet. This technique does not allow error and touches later. As Leonardo was primarily a perfectionist, he wanted a technique that could shorten the drying process of the ink
This does not mean he was not an expert, but he wanted the drying delay to execute the work with the greatest perfection imagined. So he developed certain dyes and pigments that have been shown ineffective in relation to conservation. The fresco has been constantly attacked by the action of fungi that decompose, requiring constant maintenance and restoration. Disrespect for art is not a fact that occurs only in our days. Note that, by the need to create a passage for a next room, was opened and then closed the door just about painting, destroying forever a part of the base. A similar fact occurred with the Mona Lisa, which is a painting done on wood panel, which had the sides sawn.
Let us now turn to analyze the picture presented. We see that the figure of Christ is placed exactly in the center and if we trace two perpendicular lines, projecting the vanishing point, we have this convergence point exactly on the right eye of Christ.
Thus we have the picture, with Christ at the center position and the apostles distributed on both sides. Around Christ is formed a circle passing through the arc of the door at the back, forming a triangle with the apex up ward and the other with the apex downwards. In the book "The Da Vinci Code", Dan Brown speaks of these symbols in a simplistic way, relating them to the masculine principles, personified by the figure of Christ, and the female, formed between him and John standing right beside him.
As John's features are feminine Dan Brown claims to be Mary Magdalene, who had been his wife and mother of his daughter Sara, giving rise to the dynasty of the Merovingian, the first kings francs (?). He argues that even Jesus to be a Rabbi, could not be single, and would necessarily have to be married. This is true among the Pharisees, but if we consider Jesus as Essene it would not be a fact, because the Essenes took vows of chastity and poverty of course he could not be married. (See studies on Essenes in the Dead Sea Scrolls).
But that does not interest to the narrative of Dan Brown, because it would invalidate the book. Dan Brown is a researcher and I believe he has his knowledge, but I also believe that it is not interested because it contradicts with their commercial interest, because the truth does not sell. This symbolism is represented with two triangles with opposite vertices, is actually very deep, being present in different traditions such as Vedic and Hebrew, which presents two interlocking triangles, forming the six-pointed star.
The six-pointed star, although it is known as the Star of David or Seal of Solomon is present five thousand years ago in the Vedas This symbol contains hermetic principles, such as correspondence, the polarity, as well as the sex and this cannot be reduced simply to a phallic reference. We are not depreciating the work of Dan Brown and recognize who never spoke much about these matters. These works have never been as visited as it is today and this in itself already has its importance, but we have to put things in their right places.
We can relate the triangle with vertex upwards (upper triad=Spirit), containing the principles Will, Wisdom and Mind (Consciousness). The triangle with the apex downwards relates to the matter (unconsciousness). Thus when the two overlapping triangles results in the manifestation of life.
It is the projection of spirit into matter, as we can also see in the painting of Narcissus (below right), by Caravaggio, where he falls in love with his own image reflected in the mirror of water, going to deny its divine origin and losing in the webs of illusion of the world of things, which is transitory, local and temporal. The world of things is composed of the four elements (Fire, Air, Water and Earth).
The combination of the three higher attributes mathematically generates the four material elements.
Let's see. By combining the primary elements, i.e., "A", "B" and "C", produce the four elements, where "A" is associated with "B", "A" is associated with "C", "B "associates with" C "," A "is associated with" B "and" C ".
Thus we have four secondary elements. We also make an analogy with the primary colors, which are blue, yellow and red, that combined together form the four secondary colors, constituting the structure of the septenary manifestation (seven colors of the prism, seven musical notes, seven days a week seven deadly sins, etc...).
Thus, the higher will generate the ternary quaternary, with a combination of three with four, resulting in the twelve that reflect the different basic types of energy, or twelve human archetypes.
The three, four, seven and twelve numbers are sacred numbers, since summarize the constitution of the universe.
The pyramid, for example, is a splendid symbol, it is the ternary seated on a quaternary basis (I and II).
If we look at the pyramid over its apex, we shall see the division four equal parts (III). If these parts are opened (IV) will produce 12 angles (combinatorial analysis 3 of 4).
This results in the Maltese cross, or Templar cross (V), where the center is located the eye of God, who sees everything (omniscience), precisely the right eye of Christ, who is the central vanishing point in Leonardo painting (ternary on the quaternary).
In astrology there are three primary types (come Primary Cause is the Absolute = Universal) and four secondary. The three primary types show human behavior. The secondary indicate the human temperament. Human behavior is determined by the mode of expression (Cardinal, or the one who initiates an action. The fixed stabilizes the action. The mutable amend the action). It´s is the gunas of the Vedic tradition: Rajas, Tamas and Sattva, which make up matter.
We can represent these correlations through the diagram below, where the archetypes are formed considering the kinetic and static manifestation of matter and its modulation with three forms of behavior, producing the twelve basic types of temperaments, according to the diagram:
We speak of the qualifications of Leonardo that among them he held the astrological knowledge. It is precisely this knowledge that is being revealed in his work. He had deep knowledge of archetypes, detailing its characteristics, perfectly demonstrating the zodiac with the twelve signs of the Sun (Christ) as the center of events and creation, which becomes more evident if we observe that the apostles were arranged in four groups of three.
Thus, we have four groups, linking them to the four seasons of the year with an apostle for each sign.
Each station has three months and consequently three signs, starting in the spring, which is the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere, with the months of March, April and May, related to Aries, Taurus and Gemini. The summer, with the months of June, July and August, related to Cancer, Leo and Virgo. The autumn, with the months of September, October and November, related to Libra, Scorpio and Sagittarius and winter, including December, January and February, related to Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.
Another way to demonstrate this is the figure we see a three-dimensional form, with the figure of Christ and the apostles to the center divided in the ecliptic (the Sun's equator).
In the zodiacal wheel, we have divided the signs forming axes, where a sign has his virtuous characteristics, and the difficulties are experienced in the sign placed in opposition. This refers to the principle of polarity, which says that everything has two poles, and they are similar in nature, varying; however the degree and that these polarities can be reconcilable (The Kybalion - Hermes Trismegistus).
To overcome the difficulties represented by shadow, there to seek the virtues that which is light, located in their opposition.
In reality what must determine between the two poles is the search for balance, i.e., the central point is that the figure of Christ. It is to live the way of temperance, the middle path. The consciousness.
Associating the different disciples (nominated by Leonardo himself), we have the representation in the figure below:
Jesus opens his left hand upward, feeding those placed his left. Are the seasons of spring and summer, where there is the birth and growth. The right hand side down in an act of absorption of energy and experiences accumulated by the autumn and winter seasons, related to maturity and death. This demonstrates the zodiacal cycle of birth and death. It is noted that the same correlation is made in that the light is projected to the left and the right shade Christ. The same polar duality is also represented in the mantle of Jesus delimiting the two hemispheres.
At the head of the table, to the extreme left side of Christ, we have the figure of Simon, representing Aries. Leonardo represents in the order of left to right, since the signs, as seen from the earth moving anti-clockwise.
Aries, the sign that opens the zodiac, is the pioneering characteristics, leadership, initiative, and this is exactly the role demonstrated by Simon, sit at the head table. Aries rules the head and the head of Simon are displayed prominently. The position of Simon's ascendancy over the others. But not only is the position occupied by Simon Aries denoting this role but what the theme suggests, because everything results from something spoken by Simon, as the other apostles are commenting, arguing and watching Simon himself, it was told.
If Aries is related to the self, the personality, Libra corresponds to the other, the relationship and the satisfaction of the need of the partner.
It is ideal for Libra living relationship in an atmosphere of peace, beauty, balance and harmony. The figure of John, diametrically opposed to Simon receives and absorbs the full impact of what was spoken, causing it to assume a posture of submission and retirement. John's hands are placed in position reconciliation. The figure actually has a female face, because Libra, seeking harmony is associated with receptive condition. The garment also refers to balance, in that is divided in two colors. Libra is ruled by Venus and Aries by Mars. This is the axis of individuality, and Aries representing the personification of the psychological ego and Libra the other with whom the ego relates.
Next we have Judas Thaddaeus. It is related to the sign of Taurus. Taurus is characterized by personal values, possessions, to have. Taurus has the need to develop a solid structure, have support. In the painting we see that is the only apostle to lean on the table, put the left arm using the table as a shield. The size of the Taurus is solid, strong. Taurus rules the neck and throat and this is very evident in the painting. The attitude of Judas is prudence. He argues and accepted.
This is the value axis and power, having one side of Taurus and Scorpio on the other.
Scorpio is represented by Judas Iscariot. Scorpio relates to the values ​​of the other, the collective values​​. Judas, for he was treasurer of the group. Scorpio is the sign of the depths, transformation, regeneration or death. Ruled by Pluto or Hades, represents all that is profound and transformative. The role of Judas Iscariot, as misinterpreted by the Christian traditions, was critical to the tragic outcome of the drama that is the passion and resurrection. Judas Iscariot somehow was the most loyal of the apostles, because he did fulfill the scriptures. He took the most painful mission of the group fulfilling the order to terminate the Sinedrion following the proper order of Jesus, when he said, "Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss? (Luke 22:48).
Actually Scorpio is the dynamo of the Zodiac, because it determines the transformation processes necessary for evolution of life. Judas Iscariot in the painting is presented as a spectator, watching the unfolding drama, examining the course of events. These are characteristics of Scorpio. Deeply analyzes, traces the strategies and act at the right time, accurately.
Next we have Matthew, related to Gemini whose ruler is Mercury. Gemini is related to the whole mental process and communication. The mental concrete, the process of accumulation of cognitive and applied knowledge to material reality. The natives of Gemini are slender and agile, jovial, looking curious and considering all possible variables facing situations. They can be considered, sometimes contradictory, unstable, and fickle. Matthew demonstrates some of these features.
He is communicating with Simon, looking at him, but arguing with hands and arms as if he had considering all aspects of what was said. May also appear an ambiguity between what was said and what the group thinks. As Gemini is related to communication and speech relates anatomically to the shoulders, arms and hands and this is what we also noted the figure of Matthew, who is also considered the reporter of Christ, like Mercury (Hermes), the messenger of Jupiter (Zeus).
We have here the axis of knowledge and wisdom. Peter opposes Matthew, representing Sagittarius. It is the sign associated with religion.
Sagittarius governs the higher subjects, abstract knowledge and spontaneously puts into the unknown. Sometimes it is brutish and can express themselves with excessive frankness. This corresponds to the spirit of Peter, who founded the Church, or the Christian religion, with Paul (Saulo de Tarsus).
The faith when taken to its ultimate consequences may be blind and in his defense all can be allowed. Peter's hand is holding a knife to defend his own ideals, not in a threatening attitude to John, by some want to believe, even argued by Dan Brown. Sagittarius, the centaur wields the bow with the arrow to be thrown. Anatomically Sagittarius governs the hips and this is evident in the painting. The right hand rests on it. The disposition of the body of Peter remembers the design of the symbol of Sagittarius.
In the sequel we have Philip, associated to Cancer.
Here we come to the bottom of the Zodiac, or Imum Coeli (Latin for "bottom of the sky"), is the axial point of the unconscious corresponding to all devotional manifestation, the maternal feeling, the origins and traditions. This relates to home and family and Philip embodies this archetype.
With distinctly feminine face, Philip takes his two hands to his chest, as if calling everyone as children to be reconciled. Indeed, precisely Cancer governs the breasts, stomach and uterus. Hands with arms also form a figure that resembles the claws of the crab is the cancer itself.
This is the time axis, with the past and destiny. The past is associated to cancer, the mother, and the future (Capricorn) with father. So Capricorn governs the destination, i.e., what we seek as a career, as the goal of life and social role as we seek and desire recognition. It concerns the authority.
So, Andrew as Capricorn is clearly a Capricorn attitude. Capricorn is cautious and practical and could be cold and pessimistic. As Philip says "come to me," Andrew seems to say "depart from me", because to assume the responsibilities is to calculate and plan what should be done.
Capricorn corresponds anatomically to the entire bone structure, knees, skin. In painting Andrew is the one who has hands with bony fingers, demonstrating the bone structure. Alongside Philip, we see James the Less, related to Lion.
Leo is sovereign. Charismatic, flashy, creative, dramatic, seeks recognition through the exhibition. It is ruled by the Sun and radiates its light.
Leo governs the heart that is analogous to body sun. These characteristics are clearly incorporated to James Minor. Surely he is the most beautiful scenic figure painting. James to take the attitude of open arms, exposing the light, standing next to Christ himself.
Demonstrates an open chest, the heart of generosity, a typically leonine behavior, which sometimes comes to be naïve and centered on vanity and self-centeredness.
This is the axis of the power of creation. If Leo is the maintenance of creation, Aquarius is change and renewal which is also creation. Leo governs the power of the king, the monarch. Aquariums are the collective power, the group, society. This axis is that occur the struggle for power.
Aquarius, with Uranus the ruler promotes all sorts of abrupt changes, meaning always drastic changes. Often in the name of innovation is deposed monarch for the establishment of a new regime, to then become similar with the previous model. It is what is observed with the Aquarian revolutions like the French Revolution, with the deposition of Louis XVI. Napoleon was later crowned as emperor (Leo). Recently, we have the Cuban Revolution, with the deposition of Dictator Fulgencio Batista and Fidel ruling as King-Dictator.
Aquarius is associated in this way, the actions of libertarian, to rebellion, radicalism because it is engaged with human values, such as progressive values, but it is impersonal.
Analyzing the figure of James the Greater, we see that it does not appear in the foreground. He does not expose himself alone, but through the group, through diplomacy and see: Aquarius is the sign of friendship and we see James hugging Andrew and Peter, demonstrating that the strength comes from the group and not on individual attitudes.
Finally, we have Thomas, representing the Virgin.
The Virgo is related to the practicality, analysis and criticism. It also ruled by Mercury, but here the mental focuses on utilitarian and practical application to be given to all things. For that reason they questioned him, details and discriminate. Virgos is in extreme need to feel useful and provide their service, but to do so he needs to understand the cause of things. Within these characteristics we see the figure of Thomas. Thomas needs to see to believe.
Thomas in his act of inquisitor asks to Christ himself, in that puts her right in front of Jesus forefinger. As Virgo tends toward shyness and humility, Thomas is also placed in a position away from the table.
This is the axis of the serve, having Virgin correspond to service pragmatic and Pisces, the humanist service, sometimes not very clear and perceptible, which may lead Pisces to live in a state of unreality.
Pisces is associated with the dreamer inspiration and understanding. Are compassionate, emotional, intuitive and romantic, but for this state of contemplation, if not well channeled, can lead to evasion and fanciful attitudes, having difficulty perceiving reality.
Bartholomew the Apostle is which closes the zodiacal circle. He is on the other side of the table. It clearly demonstrates the Piscean characteristics. It seems that his vision is directed to a point that goes beyond the environment portrayed, a point diffuse and may not realize exactly what is going on. Does not speak, only observes, contemplates and accepts. Pisces rules the feet are just his feet, interlaced, which are illuminated under the table. Pisces has great intuitive potential, but needs to know how he can transform his nature, his sense of serving humanity in a more practical and constructive way.
Thus we come complete cycle of the zodiac, sounding clear that the message displayed in this painting, as in other works of genius. It conveys much more than seemingly suggests.
True knowledge was hidden in encrypted form by the need to preserve it, protecting it from the misunderstanding of those who thought they possessed the truth. What is hidden, veiled, does not mean it is not to be seen. It is only unveiled to those with eyes to see. Leonardo leaves us that genuine arcane wisdom was, is and will be the knowledge which guides humanity toward enlightenment through awareness.
Astrology, by the psychological approach is a process that allows us to analyze, understanding paradoxes, our conflicts, our shadow, our projections, and perhaps, through self-knowledge, doing the reintegration of contents for consciousness, so we can promote the process of transforming into true human, and better integrated with the sacred.
The path continues to be followed.
Astrology shall be understood in this view, showing that the splendor of diversity means that we may above all be tolerant and compassionate, understand the nature of the differences and accept them as a manifestation of the same source of life.
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2023.03.21 09:22 alexsinha The Natural Wonders Of Kerala: A Journey From Wayanad To Vagamon

The Natural Wonders Of Kerala: A Journey From Wayanad To Vagamon
Discovering The Serenity And Adventure Of Two Beautiful Hill Stations In Southern India
Wayanad To Vagamon

Mountains of Wayanad to the Rolling Hills of Vagamon

Wayanad and Vagamon are two picturesque destinations located in the southern Indian state of Kerala. Both these places are blessed with natural beauty and have become popular tourist spots over the years. If you are planning a trip to Kerala, then a visit to Wayanad to Vagamon should definitely be on your itinerary. Along the way from Wayanad to Vagamon, there are several attractions that you can visit.
Here are some of the top attractions:
  1. Meenmutty Waterfalls: Located in Wayanad, the Meenmutty Waterfalls is one of the most popular waterfalls in Kerala. The waterfall is surrounded by lush green forests and is a great place for nature lovers.
  2. Lakkidi Viewpoint: Located on the Wayanad Ghat road, the Lakkidi Viewpoint offers stunning views of the surrounding hills and valleys. It is also a popular spot for photography.
  3. Pala Kadavu: Located in Kottayam, the Pala Kadavu is a beautiful backwater destination that offers a serene and peaceful environment. You can take a boat ride and enjoy the scenic views of the backwaters.
  4. Vagamon Pine Forest: Located in Vagamon, the Pine Forest is a beautiful spot with tall pine trees and a serene atmosphere. It is a popular spot for photography and picnics.

Fly Vagamon Paragliding: Adventure Activity You Can’t Miss

A fly Vagamon tour is a unique and thrilling experience that allows travelers to soar above the beautiful landscapes of Vagamon. This tour involves paragliding, which is a popular adventure activity in Vagamon. Paragliding involves flying a lightweight glider that is suspended by a harness and controlled by the pilot. During a fly Vagamon tour, you will be accompanied by an experienced pilot who will take you on an exhilarating ride over the hills and valleys of Vagamon.
One of the best things about a fly Vagamon tour is the breathtaking views that you get to experience. As you soar high above the ground, you get a bird’s-eye view of the beautiful landscapes of Vagamon. You can witness the rolling hills, lush green meadows, and picturesque landscapes from a completely different perspective. The panoramic views of Vagamon that you get during a fly Vagamon tour are truly breathtaking and unforgettable.

Choosing Your Adventure: Different Fly Vagamon Paragliding Packages

Fly Vagamon paragliding is an exhilarating adventure activity that allows you to soar high above the rolling hills and lush green meadows of Vagamon. This activity involves flying a lightweight glider that is suspended by a harness and controlled by the pilot. During a fly Vagamon paragliding session, you will be accompanied by an experienced pilot who will take you on a thrilling ride over the hills and valleys of Vagamon.
There are several tour operators in Vagamon that offer fly Vagamon tours. The duration of the tour varies from one operator to another, but most tours last for around 20–30 minutes. The cost of the tour also varies depending on the operator, but it typically ranges between INR 3,500–5,000. It is advisable to book your tour in advance to avoid any last-minute hassles.

In Conclusion

Fly Vagamon paragliding is a thrilling and adventurous activity that offers a unique way to explore the beauty of paragliding in vagamon. If you are planning a trip to Vagamon, then a fly Vagamon paragliding session should definitely be on your itinerary. It is a great way to experience the beauty of Vagamon and create unforgettable memories that you will cherish for a lifetime. So, get ready to soar high above the hills and valleys of Vagamon and experience the thrill of paragliding like never before.
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2023.03.20 12:18 alexsinha The Scenic Beauty Of Vagamon: A Thrilling Experience Of Paragliding

The Scenic Beauty Of Vagamon: A Thrilling Experience Of Paragliding
Discovering The Mesmerizing Views And Adrenaline Rush Of Paragliding In The Pristine Hill Station Of Vagamon
Fly High

Vagamon — A Hill Station with an Altitude that Touches the Skies

Vagamon, a picturesque hill station in the southern Indian state of Kerala, is known for its scenic beauty and pleasant weather. Vagamon height from sea level approximately 1,100 meters (3,600 feet) above sea level, Vagamon offers a respite from the hot and humid weather that prevails in most parts of Kerala.
Vagamon’s altitude from sea level makes it an ideal location for a range of outdoor activities, including trekking, paragliding, and rock climbing. The hill station is also home to several scenic viewpoints that offer stunning views of the surrounding landscape.

Experience of Skydiving in the Picturesque Landscapes of Kerala

Skydiving in Kerala An Adventure of a Lifetime Kerala, popularly known as “God’s Own Country,” is famous for its serene backwaters, lush green landscapes, and rich culture. However, Kerala has more to offer than just its scenic beauty and cultural heritage. The state now also offers the thrilling adventure of skydiving, attracting adrenaline junkies from all over the world.
Skydiving in Kerala is offered in two categories: tandem skydiving and solo skydiving. Tandem paragliding is an ideal option for first-time skydivers who want to experience the thrill of freefalling while being attached to a trained instructor. The instructor takes care of all the technical aspects of the jump, allowing the skydiver to relax and enjoy the experience.

Discovering the Distance and Route from Vagamon to Munnar

Vagamon and Munnar are two of the most picturesque hill stations in the southern state of Kerala, India. These two destinations attract thousands of visitors each year with their stunning natural beauty, lush greenery, and serene surroundings. Many tourists visit both places during their Kerala tour and wonder about the distance between them. In this article, we will discuss the distance between Vagamon and Munnar, the modes of transportation available, and the scenic route that one can take.
The Vagamon to Munnar distance between is approximately 96 kilometers. The road distance is about 125 kilometers, and it takes around 3 to 4 hours to travel from Vagamon to Munnar by road, depending on the mode of transportation and traffic conditions.
Modes of Transportation: One can choose from several modes of transportation to travel from Vagamon to Munnar. The most popular options are buses, taxis, and private vehicles.
Buses: There are regular bus services between Vagamon and Munnar. The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) operates buses from Vagamon to Munnar. The bus journey takes around 4 to 5 hours, depending on the traffic conditions. The buses are comfortable and affordable, making it an ideal option for budget travelers.
Taxis: Taxis are a popular mode of transportation between Vagamon and Munnar. The taxis are available at Vagamon town or can be pre-booked online. The taxi journey takes around 3 to 4 hours, depending on traffic conditions, and is a more comfortable option for those who prefer privacy and convenience.
Private Vehicles: If you have your vehicle, you can drive from Vagamon to Munnar. The route is scenic, and you can stop at various viewpoints to admire the lush greenery and stunning landscapes. The journey takes around 3 to 4 hours, depending on the traffic conditions and the route taken.

In conclusion,

Skydiving in Kerala is an adventure of a lifetime that offers an opportunity to experience an adrenaline rush while enjoying the state’s natural beauty from a unique perspective. It is an ideal activity for adventure seekers who are looking for a challenge and want to push their limits. With certified instructors and safety protocols in place, Skydiving in Kerala is a safe and memorable experience that should be on every adventure seeker’s bucket list.
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2023.03.18 00:53 nightshadetwine Perfection, completion, justification, and purification through initiation in Paul and John.

"John’s Counter-Symposium: 'The Continuation of Dialogue' in Christianity—A Contrapuntal Reading of John’s Gospel and Plato’s Symposium" by George van Kooten (Brill, 2019):
Apart from the intermediary character and duality of love, Diotima’s speech also brings out another aspect of love that is echoed in John’s Gospel, namely the colouring of love in the tones of initiation into the mysteries. According to Diotima, the successive stages of spiritual generation constitute a progressive initiation into the mysteries, an initiation that takes the form of a gradual ascent on “the ladder of love,” from physical love to spiritual love, at the end of which—as we shall see shortly—awaits the full attainment of purity, contemplation of the divine unity, truth, and immortality. With an allusion to the difference between lower and higher mysteries in the contemporary mystery cults, the higher levels of this ladder are seen as “the final perfection (i.e., initiation, τὰ τέλεα) and full vision”—that is, “the highest mysteries”...
The mystery cults Plato refers to here are most likely the mystery cults that were especially well known in Athens: the Eleusinian mysteries at Eleusis, one of the demes of Athens, ca. 21 kilometres west of Athens and connected with it via “the Sacred Way” (Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.36.3), with its sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone/Kore, which was the center of—as Kevin Clinton concisely puts it—“the annual festival of the mysteries, which attracted initiates from the entire Greek-speaking world.” As I will now indicate, this language of “perfection” and “vision,” as expressed in the phrase τὰ τέλεα καὶ ἐποπτικά (“the final perfection and full vision”) and denoting “the highest mysteries,” is also present in John’s Gospel. Firstly, with regard to the language of perfection, in his final prayer at the conclusion of the last symposium, Jesus states his intention to his divine Father, that his pupils “will be perfected into one” by experiencing the same divine love that the Father has for Jesus... As those who ascend the ladder of love in Plato’s Symposium become perfected—that is, initiated into the mysteries—so the pupils at the last symposium are also perfected into one, and into the divine love...
In the Johannine corpus, all of these instances—of a perfecting into one that conveys the experience of comprehensive divine love, and of the perfection of divine love in those who love—seem to resonate with the notion of perfection through initiation into the higher mysteries of love on the ladder of love. This combination of perfection and love is altogether absent from the Synoptic Gospels. Is it a coincidence that Lazarus, who is described to Jesus as “him whom you love” (11:3), is also ambiguously described as “the one who has finished” (ὁ τετελευτηκώς; 11:39)—meaning “the one who has finished life, who has died,” “the deceased”—but, in a sense, only apparently so, because he “has fallen asleep” and needs to be awoken from his sleep, as Jesus says (11:11–14), and thus seems to be the one who is initiated into death and resurrection? Hence the beloved pupil (inasmuch as he seems to be identical with Lazarus) is not expected to die again (21:21–23), and he is also the first who, seemingly from his own experience (if he is indeed identical with Lazarus), understands upon seeing the empty tomb (and especially because he notices the separate position of the σουδάριον, the facial covering that he himself had worn when he walked out of his tomb; 20:7, cf. 11:44) that Jesus has been brought to life again (20:8). Consequently, there seems to be a wordplay between “being perfected” or “initiated” (τετελειωμένος; 17:23) and “having finished” or “died” (τετελευτηκώς; 11:39), between τελειόω and τελευτάω.
A similar wordplay between τέλειος / τέλεος (“perfect,” “initiated”), τελευτάω (“to finish,” “to come to an end”), and τὸ τέλος (“the end”) is made in Diotima’s speech, as the final perfection (τὰ τέλεα; 210a) and full vision of the highest mysteries consist in the fact that those who are initiated into them and ascend the ladder of love “end” their former forms of knowledge and love, “come to an end,” “issue in,” and are thus fully initiated into the highest form of knowledge and love, which focuses on the very essence of beauty itself... A similarly playful combination of cognate forms such as τελέω, τελειόω, τελευτάω, and τὸ τέλος also occurs in the Gospel of John, not only with regard to the pupils who are perfected and initiated into one, and with regard to Lazarus, but also with respect to Jesus himself: he loves his pupils “till the end” (εἰς τέλος), as the author notes in his description of the last symposium (13:1), and it is at this symposium that he talks about his pupils’ perfection and initiation into one (17:23) before he finishes his life by exclaiming, again in marked difference from the Synoptic Gospels: “It has been finished, it has been perfected” (Τετέλεσται; 19:30). Both Lazarus’s and Jesus’s deaths are described in the ambiguous terminology of finishing, perfection, and initiation, and thus understood as initiations into a death that is followed by a resurrection, just as in the mystery religions. It seems that Jesus’s final exclamation, “It has been finished” (Τετέλεσται), signals the end of such an initiation, thus putting the event of his death on a par with the place of initiation at the Eleusinian mysteries, which—as becomes clear in Plutarch’s description of the building of the Eleusinian sanctuary—is called a τελεστήριον, a place for initiation...
This is by no means the only allusion to the Eleusinian mysteries in John’s Gospel. Just before his death, at the beginning of the last festival that he attends in the Jerusalem temple, it is the very Greeks who wish to see Jesus whom he answers with a reference to his approaching death, cast in a hidden allusion to the Eleusinain mysteries, which revolve around the contemplation of an ear of wheat that was seen as the fruit of the resurrection of Aphrodite/ Kore:56 “unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains just a single grain; but if it dies, it bears much fruit” (12:24)... What the Gospel of John reveals is that its author follows Diotima’s speech even in its use of initiation terminology and its reference to the Eleusinian mysteries. Whereas the annual festival of the Eleusinian mysteries at the τελεστήριον of the sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone/Kore at Athens attracted religious seekers from the entire Greek-speaking world, the author of John’s Gospel mirrors and inverts this festival in the annual Passover festival at the Jerusalem temple, which is visited by Greeks who seek Jesus and see the Eleusinian mysteries accomplished in him, whose very body is a temple (2:19–21) and a place of initiation (τελεστήριον; 19:30).
Among the Gentiles Greco-Roman Religion and Christianity (Yale University Press, 2009), Luke Timothy Johnson:
Two cultic activities of early assemblies would easily be recognized by members of Greco-Roman religious associations. The first was baptism, the ritual of initiation that marked entry into the community. As an initiatory ritual, it was notable primarily for its simplicity and its singularity; in the Mysteries, initiations tended to be complex and multiple. For Jewish believers, baptismal washing for males would represent an addition to the Jewish ritual of circumcision; for Gentile converts, baptism replaced circumcision (Col 2:11-12)-a circumstance that also could be the occasion for conflict. The second cultic activity was the meal. Some version of "breaking bread in houses" (Acts 2:42, 46) that Paul calls the "Lord's Banquet" (kyriakon deipnon; 1 Cor 11:20) was celebrated in the gathered assembly, probably on the day of resurrection, the first day of the week (1 Cor 16:2; see Rev 1:10). The rituals of initiation and meals were occasions for enacting the presence of the risen Lord in the assembly and for remembering the words and deeds of Jesus in the context of his continuing powerful presence... As he reports the risen Lord saying to him when Paul asked to be freed from the stake in his flesh, "My grace [charis-that is, "benefit"] is sufficient for you, for [my] power [dynamis] is brought to perfection [teleitai] in weakness" (2 Cor 12:9). ...
Paul's response to those Colossians who, after their baptism into Christ, pursued further "perfection" or "maturity" through circumcision, asceticism, and visions-all instinctive to Religiousness A as found in Greco-Roman religion makes the role of thinking even more explicit. Their maturity does not result from adding on but from digging deeper. Paul wants them to be filled with "recognition of [God's] will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding" (Col 1:9). To what end? That they might "walk worthily of the Lord in everything pleasing, bearing fruit in every good deed and growing in the recognition of God" (1:10). Paul connects this growth in knowledge and in moral behavior precisely with the divine dynamis in which they had become participants... Paul again argues morally from their religious experience of baptism, in which they were "buried together with him" and were "raised with him" through faith (Col 2:12). If then they died with Christ (2:20) and if they were raised with him (3:1), that ritual pattern should determine their moral behavior: they should put to death all modes of vice and "put on" the new humanity, resisting all impulses that drive them to rivalry and competition and instead showing toward each other the same compassion that was shown them (3:12-13). And over all these, Paul says, they should put on agape, which is the bond of perfection (teleiotetos, or maturity)... Paul's language of "perfection" echoes that used for the Mysteries; see Phil 1:6; p2; Gal 3=3; 2 Cor 8:6, 11; Rom 15:28; and R. S. Ascough, "The Completion of a Religious Duty: The Background of 2 Cor 8:1-15," New Testament Studies 42 (1996): 584-599.
Mystery Cults, Theatre and Athenian Politics: A Reading of Euripides' Bacchae and Aristophanes' Frogs (Bloomsbury Academic, 2023), Luigi Barzini:
Initiation (τελετή) from τελεῖν (accomplish, finish), originally meant ‘accomplishment’, ‘performance’. The term is characteristically used to denote initiation in the mysteries, and in plural to mystic rites practised at initiation, such as the festival accompanied by mystic rites. This term covers a wide semantic field. Meanings include ‘initiation in the mysteries’ but also ‘accomplishment’, ‘fulfilment’, ‘perfection’ and ‘completion’, terms that express the spiritual weight that mystery initiation had for the Greeks in terms of the spiritual state of the individual.
As I've mentioned before, Greco-Roman initiation rituals seem to be influenced by the Egyptian mortuary ritual. Diodorus Siculus in his Library of Histories (1.96.4–6) says:
Orpheus, for instance, brought from Egypt most of his mystic ceremonies, the orgiastic rites that accompanied his wanderings, and his fabulous account of his experiences in Hades. [...] and the punishments in Hades of the unrighteous, the Fields of the Righteous, and the fantastic conceptions, current among the many, which are figments of the imagination – all these were introduced by Orpheus in imitation of the Egyptian funeral customs.
You also find this concept of "perfection" and "completion" in the Egyptian mortuary ritual. For Paul, the concept of "perfection" is related to morality. Paul also says that the perishable must put on imperishability.
1 Corinthians 15:
For this perishable body must put on imperishability, and this mortal body must put on immortality. When this perishable body puts on imperishability and this mortal body puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will be fulfilled: “Death has been swallowed up in victory.” “Where, O death, is your victory? Where, O death, is your sting?” The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law."
Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Cornell University Press, 2005), Jan Assmann:
The Egyptians wanted to overcome death in both kinds of time, and to do this, they relied on both Re and Osiris... To achieve this goal of Osirian continuation, they needed embalming, mummification, and, above all, the Judgment of the Dead. The concept of completion/perfection, Egyptian nfrw, not only had connotations of beauty, perfection, and imperishability but also, and above all, connotations of virtue and righteousness, of moral perfection and conformance with the norms of maat. From djet-time, there arose a moral perspective. Only good could continue unchangeably; evil, bad, uncleanliness, and imperfection were given over to perishability. The moral qualities of a result, that is, its conformance to maat, decided its imperishability... The Judgment of the Dead represented an extreme spiritualizing and ethicizing of the mythical concept of vindicating the deceased against death... The guilt of the deceased was that which stood in the way of his transformation into the eternal form of a “transfigured ancestral spirit.” It was the Egyptian form of the Pauline concept, “the wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23)... He who is vindicated in the Judgment of the Dead will “stride freely like the lords of eternity,” he will be accepted among the gods. He will thus not only enjoy continuance on earth but also immortality in the next world... This was the moment when the process of life turned into the unchangeable and indestructible permanence of Wennefer [= Osiris], the “completed lasting one”... There is good reason to think that ancient Egyptian burial customs lived on in the Hellenistic Isis mysteries, though in the latter case, they were enacted and interpreted not as a burial of the deceased but as an initiation of the living...
"Death and Initiation in the Funerary Religion of Ancient Egypt", Jan Assmann in Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt, Yale Egyptological Studies 3, 1989:
The embalming process, to which it refers, is related to the topic of initiation in manifold ways. It is conceived not so much as a preservation of the corpse, but rather as its transfiguration to a new body: one "filled with magic," the perishable substances of which have been replaced by everlasting ones, resting in the mummy-cover as if it were a kind of magic garment.
In 1 Corinthians 15 Paul also says:
But someone will ask, “How are the dead raised? With what kind of body do they come?” Fool! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. And as for what you sow, you do not sow the body that is to be but a bare seed, perhaps of wheat or of some other grain... What is sown is perishable; what is raised is imperishable. It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it is raised in power. It is sown a physical body; it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body.
Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt (Dallas Museum of Art, 1993), Sue D'Auria and Peter Lacovara::
The underlying idea was that life can only exist, be renewed, and be regained through death. Not only human beings, but also such gods as Re and Osiris were mortal: They had life in the sense that they had died and arisen from the dead... Akh is usually translated as “spirit” but its corporeal aspect should not be neglected. A bodily spirit or spiritual body may seem a contradiction in terms, but it is not unknown in religious, or at least Christian, terminology: If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body.
In both Paul and John the planting and sprouting of a seed is used as a metaphor for resurrection which you also find in the Egyptian mortuary cult and the mystery cults. In John 12:24 Jesus says:
“unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains just a single grain; but if it dies, it bears much fruit”
Ancient Egyptian Magic (William Morrow Paperbacks, 1998), Bob Brier:
One of the most interesting magical objects in this room was a wooden mold in the shape of Osiris. This mold was lined with linen and filled with rich topsoil deposited by the Nile. Seeds, mostly for grain, were planted in the topsoil. When they sprouted, they would be a green, living representation for Osiris, symbolizing resurrection. Tutankhamen had sought to identify himself with Osiris in that way and bring about his resurrection.
All Things Ancient Egypt: An Encyclopedia of the Ancient Egyptian World (ABC-CLIO, 2019), Lisa K. Sabbahy:
Osiris beds were placed in tombs. These consisted of a hollow frame in the shape of the mummiform Osiris that was filled with earth in which seeds were sown. These would have then grown after the tomb was sealed, actualizing the resurrection of Osiris and, hence, that of the deceased.
Another important aspect of the Egyptian mortuary ritual is "justification". In Romans 5 Paul says:
Results of Justification:
Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we[a] have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand, and we boast in our hope of sharing the glory of God... Much more surely, therefore, since we have now been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath of God... Therefore just as one man’s trespass led to condemnation for all, so one man’s act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all... But law came in, so that the trespass might increase, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, just as sin reigned in death, so grace might also reign through justification leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Following Osiris: Perspectives on the Osirian Afterlife from Four Millennia (Oxford University Press, 2017), Mark Smith:
In the same way that Osiris was restored to life and declared free of wrongdoing, so all who died hoped to be revived and justified... As in earlier periods, those who passed the test of judgement were declared ‘justified' and accepted into the following of Osiris... In the same way that justification and acceptance into the company of Osiris’s followers offered a means of social reintegration for those whom death had cut off from friends and relations, the mummification rites restored the physical integrity of their bodies, transfiguring them and endowing them with a new eternal form... the concepts of mummification and justification were closely linked...
"Death and Initiation in the Funerary Religion of Ancient Egypt", Jan Assmann in Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt, Yale Egyptological Studies 3, 1989:
"Justification" is the central concept of Egyptian funerary religion in which all aspects of the "overcoming of death" and of salvation in the next world come together... The deceased must justify himself: with respect to the enemy (as the personification of death)... with respect to the divine prosecutor and judge, in whose presence the deceased must answer for his conduct on earth and prove himself worthy of eternal salvation...
In Romans 6 Pauls says:
Do you not know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? Therefore we were buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we will certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. We know that our old self was crucified with him... For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
So in baptism Christians are symbolically crucified with Christ and raised to new life like Christ. In the Egyptian mortuary ritual Egyptians were first purified with water and then symbolically dismembered like Osiris and raised to new life like Osiris.
Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Cornell University Press, 2005), Jan Assmann:
We now understand why the embalming ritual had to portray the corpse not just as a lifeless body but as a dismembered one... The myth dramatized this condition, telling how Seth slew his brother Osiris, tore his body into pieces, and scattered his limbs throughout all of Egypt. In the embalming ritual, this myth was played out for each deceased person, even if he had in no way been killed and dismembered but rather had died a peaceful, natural death... This first phase was carried out in the name of purification. Everything “foul,” that is, everything perishable that could represent a danger to the goal of achieving an eternal form, was removed from the body. For this reason, in the few representations of the embalming ritual, this phase is represented as a purifying bath. The corpse lay “on” (that is, in) a basin, and water was poured over it. The Egyptian word for such a basin is Sj, “lake,” and such a “lake” is mentioned repeatedly in the accompanying spells, some of which we shall cite in chapter 5... In Egyptian mortuary belief, Osiris was the prototype of every deceased individual. Everyone would become Osiris in death and be endowed with life by Isis... As Osiris, the deceased was fully vindicated against Seth, that is, death, in this lawsuit... The ordinary deceased was a follower of Osiris, was called Osiris and compared to him, and became a member of his following. He came into possession not only of life but also of personal status and recognition. He bore the name of the god, along with his own titles and his personal name, as well as the epithet “justified/vindicated.” He smote Seth, which meant that he had conquered death... Guilt, accusation, enmity, and so forth are treated as forms of impurity and decay—as, so to say, immaterial but harmful substances—that must be eliminated so as to transpose the deceased into a condition of purity that can withstand decay and dissolution. Vindication was moral mummification... He was vindicated against all accusations and absolved of any and all guilt, of any sin that could hinder his transition into the next life
Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism Late Antiquity, Early Judaism (Walter de Gruyter, 2011), David Hellholm, Tor Vegge, Oyvind Norderval, Christer Hellholm:
The ritual is said to have cleansed the ritual participants from the state of being that existed prior to the ritual. By means of the ritual they have acquired a state of purity categorically different from the one that characterised their previous state of being, i.e. they have been transferred from a state of impurity to a state of purity. It is certainly not coincidental that the cleansing metaphor precedes the next two metaphors which serve to make it clear to the recipients that the Corinthian Christ-believers have been initiated into a new form of being. They have not only been set apart from the world which is ultimately what the metaphor of sanctification implies but due to their justification in the name of the Lord Jesus and by means of the spirit of God they have also entered into a new legal state before God, i.e. they have been justified or acquitted of their previous guilt. In order to obtain justification, however, it is essential that the ritual participants have been transferred to a state in which they have been made ritually prepared for the acquisition of the justification. We do not need to enter into the discussion whether Paul in 1 Cor 6:11 is quoting from a pre-Pauline tradition or not. It suffices to note that in one of the earliest strands of what later became known as Christianity we find an amalgamation of elements pertaining to rituals of purification as well as rituals of initiation. Apparently, the two do not exclude each other... In fact I will argue that a ritual of initiation cannot be separated from the element of cleansing irrespective of whether that element is merely present in the form of a metaphorical formulation or as an independent, preparatory rite of purification... Although a rite of purification may not be part of the ritual of initiation per se, it does play a prominent role in the preparatory rites that precede Lucius’ initiation into the mysteries of Isis as recounted in the eleventh book of the Metamorphoses or The Golden Ass by Apuleius... It is a prevalent phenomenon frequently found in connection with rituals of initiation that a rite of cleansing or purification is somehow related to it.
A Journey Through the Beyond: The Development of the Concept of Duat and Related Cosmological Notions in Egyptian Funerary Literature (ISD LLC, Feb 1, 2022), Silvia Zago:
Moreover, at least some of these passages mentioning the lake(s) of the Duat associate these with the sun and the eastern horizon, near which such lakes may have been imagined to be located. In virtue of this connection, the Duat may be surmised to assume the connotation of a liminal, transitional place, where the sun and the king get cleansed before being ready to reappear on the horizon every morning and to rise in the sky. Ultimately, (ritual) purity was a necessary condition for being reborn, and for this reason it is often connected with the notion of the (initiatory) journey of the deceased through the Duat. The association between Osiris and water in a context of purification, renewal, and rebirth also had a long tradition in ancient Egyptian (funerary) literature...
In John, Lazarus is mourned by two sisters, is said to be "asleep" but will be awakened, and is bound with strips of cloth similar to a mummy. John 11:
Now a certain man was ill, Lazarus of Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha. Mary was the one who anointed the Lord with perfume and wiped his feet with her hair; her brother Lazarus was ill... After saying this, he told them, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I am going there to awaken him.” The disciples said to him, “Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will be all right.” Jesus, however, had been speaking about his death, but they thought that he was referring merely to sleep. Then Jesus told them plainly, “Lazarus is dead. For your sake I am glad I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him.” Thomas, who was called the Twin, said to his fellow disciples, “Let us also go, that we may die with him.” When Jesus arrived, he found that Lazarus had already been in the tomb four days... he cried with a loud voice, “Lazarus, come out!” The dead man came out, his hands and feet bound with strips of cloth and his face wrapped in a cloth. Jesus said to them, “Unbind him, and let him go.”
In the Egyptian mortuary ritual there are two sisters who mourn Osiris, Osiris is said to be "asleep" but will be awakened, and he is wrapped as a mummy.
"The Baptismal Raising of Lazarus: A New Interpretation of John 11", Bernhard Lang, Novum Testamentum 58 (2016):
Though well hidden, the theme of baptism informs the whole story of the raising of Lazarus (John 11)... Ritually, the person being baptised is pushed into the realm of death, so that he can emerge to a new life... Unfortunately, our ancient sources on mystery religions tell us very little about how the “second birth” was ritually staged, for initiates were required to remain silent about it. Nevertheless, some hints found in ancient sources give an indication. The magic papyrus of Paris provides a good example. Around eleven o’clock in the morning and in the presence of the magician, the candidate is supposed to mount the roof of a house and spread out a piece of cloth. Naked he places himself upon it. His eyes are blindfolded, the entire body wrapped like a mummy... When this occurs, possibly in the form of a draught of air felt by the candidate, the latter stands up. He dons a white garment, burns incense and again utters a spell. The rites completed, he descends from the roof. Now he knows that he has acquired immortality. Similar rites and symbolic representations of death and resurrection can be found in all ancient mystery cults. “When the candidate of the mysteries of Isis applies for initiation, he chooses the ritual death in order to gain true life,” explains Reinhold Merkelbach. In fact, according to the ancients, each initiation ritual involves the death of the old and the birth of a new person; there are no exceptions. Early-Christian baptism divides the lives of those baptised in a sequence of three phases. In the first phase, the human being is enslaved to sin and the world. The second phase means death: the baptismal candidate is killed—symbolically, but not actually drowned by being forced under water. This “drowning” is the actual rite of baptism.
The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (SBL Press; Second edition, 2015), James P. Allen:
Recitation 194: This Teti’s sister (Wadjet), the Lady of Pe, is the one who cried for him, and the two attendants, (Isis and Nephthys), who mourned Osiris have mourned him... Recitation 526: Raise yourself, clear away your dust, remove the shroud on your face. Loosen your ties...
The Mortuary Papyrus of Padikakem Walters Art Museum 551 (ISD LLC, 2011), Yekaterina Barbash:
Both compositions of papyrus W551 are mortuary in character and address Osiris or the deceased associated with him... Thus while section 1 contains earthly expressions of love and mourning for the deceased, section 2 deals with his transition to a new state of being in the hereafter. The sequence of the texts corresponds with the Egyptian perception of death, i.e., the deceased is gradually transformed after death, from this world to the sphere of the divine... The two goddesses, Isis and Nephthys, refer to death from the viewpoint of the living, uncovering their human emotions, as they recall their love for Osiris and grieve for him... the myth of Osiris, Horus, and Seth is evoked in spell 10 of PW 551:"The Great One (=Osiris) awakens, The Great One wakes up. Osiris raised himself on his side, the One who hates sleep (i.e., death), one who does not love weariness. The god stands, being powerful of his body. Horus has lifted him up, he's raised in Nedit."... In the s3hw as well as in other mortuary texts such as the BR, the transformation into an akh occurs by means of association of the deceased with the god Osiris and his incorporation into the sphere of the divine... Isis and Nephthys perform the widest range of tasks for the deceased Osiris, including purification, protection, and reassembling. At the same time, the two sisters act as they do in the lamentations, mourning and "glorifying" Osiris...
Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple (Yale Egyptological Seminar, 2006), David Klotz:
Rather, the true meaning goes back to the Pyramid Text originals, where the deceased Osiris/King is asked to “wake up” (viz. “resurrect himself ”), a common theme in mortuary spells. As Griffiths has noted, “death is really only a sleep, then, a phase of tiredness,” while in the same vein sleep was considered a death-like state. Thus the term rs (“awake”) could refer as easily to resurrection from death as to physical awakening from sleep, since the two states were conceptually synonymous.
The Search for God in Ancient Egypt (Cornell University Press, 2001), Jan Assmann:
Both spells proceed from the situation of the deceased lying on his bier, and both set it in the light of a mythic situation or an event in the divine realm: the discovery of Osiris, who has been slain by his brother Seth. The mythic explanation facilitates action; in spell 532, the action of the mourning women, who bewail the deceased as Isis and Nephthys, embalm and awaken him... Death is not an end, but the beginning of the funerary rites, and thus it is also the beginning of the story that explains these rites... The Osiris myth overcomes the experience of death by according this apparently catastrophic and hopeless situation an orientation in which it becomes meaningful to say to the deceased: "Arise!" "Stand up!" "Lift yourself!"—called out to the deceased as he lies stretched out, these exhortations constitute a common element shared by the two texts. They occur in a hundred other spells of the Pyramid Texts, and in later funerary literature, they are expanded into lengthy recitations and litanies that make a refrain of them, consistently addressing them to the deceased lying on the bier or to Osiris... We can summarize all these recitations, from the Pyramid Texts through the latest Osirian mysteries, as a genre of "raise-yourself spells."... Addressed to the deceased lying inert, the spells say, "Raise yourself!" on various mythic grounds. Their function is to raise the dead...
Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Cornell University Press, 2005), Jan Assmann:
“Salvation” and “eternal life” are Christian concepts, and we might think that the Egyptian myth can all too easily be viewed through the lens of Christian tradition. Quite the contrary, in my opinion, Christian myth is itself thoroughly stamped by Egyptian tradition, by the myth of Isis and Osiris, which from the very beginning had to do with salvation and eternal life. It thus seems legitimate to me to reconstruct the Egyptian symbolism with the help of Christian concepts. As with Orpheus and Eurydice, the constellation of Isis and Osiris can also be compared with Mary and Jesus. The scene of the Pietà, in which Mary holds the corpse of the crucified Jesus on her lap and mourns, is a comparable depiction of the body centered intensity of female grief, in which Mary is assisted by Mary Magdalene, just as Isis is assisted by Nephthys.
Lamentation and mourning seem to be common in mystery cults. The mourning women seem to always play a role in anointing, purifying, and protecting the deceased's body.
Dionysos (Routledge, 2006), Richard Seaford:
There is considerable evidence (albeit much of it from late antiquity) for lamentation in mystery-cult, sometimes for the deity. The dismemberment of Dionysos was associated with – or perhaps in some way enacted in – his mystery-cult: we know this mainly from late texts, but there is evidence that the myth was known in the archaic and classical periods, and in view of our vase-painting of maenads attending the head (mask) of Dionysos in the liknon, it is possible that in the fifth century BC maenads in mystery-cult lamented the death of Dionysos. And given the importance of Dionysiac cult – and specifically of mystery-cult performed by the thiasos – in the genesis of Athenian tragedy, it is not unlikely that the centrality of lamentation for an individual in tragedy derives in part from maenadic lamentation...
Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt (Dallas Museum of Art, 1993), Sue D'Auria and Peter Lacovara:
The renewal, that mysterious process that Kristensen’ called life from death, came about outside the created world in the unfathomable depth and darkness of the primeval waters (Nun) that surround this world. It is in that mysterious space that the deceased could live again. One sun-hymn reads: "How beautiful is thy shining forth in the horizon We are in renewal of life. We have entered into Nun He has renovated (us) to one who is young for the first time The (one) has been stripped off, the other put on." The last sentence has been interpreted to mean, “The old man is cast off and the new man is put on.“ It may also call to mind the mummy-bandages that are thrown off in the decisive moment of resurrection and the white garments that the glorified dead wear in depictions of the Underworld... The process begins with mummification: “the evening is set aside for you with oils and wrapping in the arms of the Weaving-Goddess"... Mummy-bindings had to be removed at the moment of resurrection... The thoroughness with which the Egyptians are wrapped makes understandable such special prayers as the one written on a coffin in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, directing the goddess Isis to free the mummy from its wrappings at the moment of resurrection: “Ho my mother Isis, come that you may remove the bindings which are on me".
So by entering the primordial waters the "old man is cast off and the new man is put on". This sounds very similar to how Paul describes baptism. The water purification during the mortuary ritual was associated with the primordial waters.
Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt (British Museum Press, 2001), John H. Taylor:
The first stage was the purification of the corpse by washing... Cleansing of the corpse before mummification was doubtless a practical necessity, but the ritual aspects of the washing were perhaps of greater significance. According to Egyptian belief, water held important purifying and life giving qualities. Each dawn was a repetition of the original birth of the sun god from the watery chaos of Nun... Hence lustration came to be closely associated with rebirth...A ritual purification was necessary before the dead king could ascend to heaven in the manner of his divine model the sun god... In some of the Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts (5th to 6th Dynasties) the dead king is identified with Osiris, and thereby was believed to experience rebirth just as the murdered god had done.
The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day edited by Eva Von Dassow:
Every evening the aged sun entered the underworld and travelled through it, immersed in Nun, only to emerge at dawn as Khepri, the newborn sun. Thus, the waters of Nun had a rejuvenating, baptismal quality essential to rebirth.
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2023.03.14 18:59 AzCanyonRafting Nearby Attractions Outside Las Vegas

Nearby Attractions Outside Las Vegas
Las Vegas is a great place where the fun never stops. However, the attractions that Nevada offers expand beyond the city limits. The state is blessed with picturesque landscapes, lots of nature and plenty of history.
If you are headed to the city and want to explore the nearby beauties, you are on the right page. Below, we are listing some of the best things to do outside Las Vegas.

The Best Attractions Near Las Vegas

How about a day trip away from the iconic Las Vegas Strip?
The landmarks below are ideal for day trips from Las Vegas or multi-day excursions. Most of them are in close proximity (at only a few hours away) from the city and can be easily reached by car. All of them are great for adventure seekers, hikers and nature enthusiasts. You can take a guided tour to explore each of them or visit on your own.

Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area
The Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is another major landmark close to Las Vegas. It is located on the western edge of the city, making it a quick escape for many of the locals. Characterized by the red rock hills, the area also offers great hiking trails.
Driving enthusiasts should know that there is a one-way 13 mile scenic loop in the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, which is another thing you should put on your checklist when visiting this Las Vegas NV attraction. You can take the 13 mile drive by car or with an off-road vehicle.
Plenty of Las Vegas residents visit this area for hiking in the Red Rock Canyon and witnessing some spectacular views. You can visit the area in the spring and explore some of the scenic tours. Adventurers can choose from the numerous hiking, bicycling, horseback riding and off-road driving tours with motorized vehicles in the Red Rock Canyon, making most of the scenery and going for new kinds of adventures.
Toward the southern end of this natural landmark, you can reach the Spring Mountain Ranch State Park and the Bonnie Springs Ranch which was sold in 2019 and closed to the public. The latter was also known for its replica of a western ghost town.

Grand Canyon
The Grand Canyon National Conservation Area is another buzzing spot close to Las Vegas and one of the popular places to visit. This attraction is located in Arizona and about 130 miles from the heart of Las Vegas, though the North Rim and South Rim are located over 270 miles from the Las Vegas Strip.
According to scientists, the Grand Canyon National Park formed 5 to 6 million years ago when the river began to cut its channel through layers or rock. At the time, humans have inhabited the area – in fact, the first Europeans to reach the Grand Canyon were the Spaniards in the 1540s. Since 1893, the Grand Canyon is protected as a forest reserve. In 1919, it became an official United States National Park.
Today, visitors go to the Grand Canyon to trace its geologic history on the Trail of Time, an interesting exhibit on the park's South Rim. The spectacular viewpoints in the Grand Canyon have also made the destination popular for adventurers and thrill seekers.
With more than five million visitors from all over the globe visiting the Grand Canyon each year, there are plenty of new developments. One of them is the Grand Canyon Skywalk, which is a walkway with a glass floor that hangs over a western section of the Grand Canyon. All in all, one of the most famous and popular destinations close to Las Vegas.

Death Valley National State Park
Death Valley is located in California but can be visited on a day trip from Las Vegas. Surrounded by wilderness, the Death Valley National Park is the largest national park in the United States (besides Alaska) and an International Biosphere Reserve.
Despite its morbid name, the Death Valley National Park is a land of extremes with plenty of contrasts. You can notice towering peaks frosted with winter snow, rare rainstorms, and tons of wildflowers. No wonder why it is a famous Las Vegas attraction.
You will be surprised to see dunes, fields of wildflowers, lakes and plenty of different colors. The sights don't require long walks, and some of the best highlights are Badwater Basin, the moving rocks at Race Track, the rolling hills at Zabriskie Point, and the viewpoint from Dante's View. Perfect for a road trip!

Valley Of Fire
Because of this stunning location, Nevada is sometimes called "the Valley of Fire state." A trip from Las Vegas to the Valley of Fire State Park guarantees a lot of excitement, especially if you are into history and want to explore old signs carved on massive red rock formations in the Mojave Desert.
The Valley of Fire State Park is a great place for hiking, and a popular destination of Las Vegas residents and people living in Nevada. The trails here are short but lead you to some great sceneries. The area stretches around more than 42,000 acres of haunting sandstone creations which were formed by sand dunes that settled and solidified. The first human signs here date back to approximately 3,000 years ago.
From red rock formations to petroglyphs, the Valley Of Fire State Park is an interesting archeological spot. There are multiple opportunities to see wildlife, camp, and enjoy the scenery out in the open. To reach this magnificent landmark, you should take Interstate 15 north from the city and drive for about an hour.

Zion National Park
The Zion National Park is hosting 2.5 million visitors per year, many of which are coming from Las Vegas. Located in SouthWestern Utah, it is the state's oldest and most visited national park that is located 160 miles from the city. The best driving route to take is Interstate 16, which offers some beautiful sights and won't take more than 2.5 hours.
The Zion National Park starts with the Zyon Canyon as the main attraction at the south end, exhibiting scenic rock formations, monolith structures and eroded canyon walls cut by the Virgin River. The 2,200 foot Great White Throne is another great highlight in the Zion National Park and the most popular landmark in the area. Others include the Court of the Patriarchs, Angel's Landing and the Watchman, all of which are interesting sights.
Other notable places to visit in this area are the hiking trails which are positioned all around the park – there are even areas that are so narrow so that hikers could nearly touch both sides of the canyon with their hands.

Mount Charleston
The town of Mount Charleston offers a nice change of scene and climate from the Sin City, which is why even locals consider it for a quick adventure. Positioned at 7,000 feet, it is an easy hour's drive from Las Vegas.
What looks like a cool escape in the summer can easily transform to a snowy wonderland in the winter. Every season is unique in Mount Charleston, and this place is unlike any desert nearby. No wonder why it is among the favorite national parks for locals.
The mountainous region is definitely a change compared to the desert ambiance near the city. Tall pines and fabulous trails for hiking are among the top-rated activities, whether you are looking for a refreshing break from the smoke filled casinos or an active weekend surrounded by nature. You can even spend a night in a hotel and enjoy the fresh air.
Over 25 endemic plant and animal species live in the "sky island" of Mount Charleston, and the scenery changes in different elevations. You can also take a guided tour to explore different trees, wildflowers, and oases.
There are trails for all skill levels, whether you want to hike, camp, climb cycle or drive. The city also offers fun to horseback riders who can choose from a variety of settings and indulge in the beauties of the Spring Mountains.

Lake Mead National Recreation Area
Lake Mead is easily on the list of best day trips from Las Vegas and the largest reservoir in the country created by the construction of the Hoover Dam. Lake Mead offers 750 miles of shoreline, which is plenty for many looking for relaxation.
Plenty of natural activities like swimming, boating, hiking, camping and fishing are all possible in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Ideal for a road trip from Sin City, this playground is located in America's First National Recreation Area that spreads across 1.5 million acres of scenic hills, canyons, valleys and lakes (Lake Mead and Lake Mohave).
Expect to see hills that look like purple majesties, breathe in fresh air and enjoy a day at the beach. When at Lake Mead, you can also take a boat out from Hemenway Harbor and nestle into a cove or take a cruise to the Hoover Dam. Beach enthusiasts should visit Boulder Beach for a lazy day or Callville Bay for water sports and activities.
The Lake Mead National Recreation Area is easily one of the best spots nearby Las Vegas, Nevada for visitors who want to get away from the city and relax looking at or swimming in the blue waters surrounded by colorful desert.

Colorado River Rafting
The Colorado River is flowing near Las Vegas into the Gulf of California. It is a main source of freshwater and an attraction in many different areas of the country. Located close to the city of Las Vegas near Lake Mead, it offers the picturesque Black Canyon area where you can indulge in rafting tours and enjoy white water rafting activities under the dam.
One of the most scenic viewpoints in these rafting tours is going below the Hoover Dam bridge and exploring the incredible Black Canyon and all of the stone-made hills nearby. Going under the dam in a raft is a breathtaking experience you will remember.

Bryce Canyon National Park

Unlike the Grand Canyon and Red Rock Canyon, the Bryce Canyon located in Utah is not a single canyon but a series of bowls carved into the edge of a high mountain. It is also a landmark where you can explore otherworldly sculptures that have been there for millions of years. This place is a main tourist attraction in the state and a spot where you can see natural stone sculptures.
The dead standing trees provide a lot of habitat – more than 85 species of North American birds build their nests in them. Nature enthusiasts can also spot mammals, lizards, insects and many other species that make the Bryce Canyon their home.
Utah's Bryce Canyon National Park is full of red-orange-pink amphitheaters that date back to 70 million years ago. Wind, water, and time eroded these sandstone cliffs into breathtaking characters that look almost intentional, yet perfectly surreal.

Boulder City
Boulder city is a town that is located 26 miles (45 minutes by car) southeast from Las Vegas. Known for the iconic Hoover Dam and the Boulder Dam Museum, it also has a power plant. It is also a place where you can hike – the Historic Railroad Trail is among the favorites for hikers.
Boulder City's downtown is not as big or fast-paced as Las Vegas' but is still a major landmark. The town has rich railroad history and offers a less frenetic, but still lively setting. The best times for visiting it are the spring and fall seasons, mostly because of the heat of the summer which can sometimes reach 100-degree-plus temperatures.
The famous Hoover Dam is part of the history of this town, and Boulder City's Boulder Dam Museum in downtown tells the story of its origin. You can expect stunning views and plenty of history when visiting this place. As the museum's website says, the Hoover Dam has a remote location and difficult terrain, which is why a town had to be built to house the construction companies and their workers. Because of these two landmarks, the city is often called Boulder Dam, too.
Hiking and cycling are also welcome in this city. You can take the 3.7 mile tour route and explore the tunnels built along with the Hoover Dam that burrow through the rugged volcanic rocks. The trail is rated easy and is among Nevada's most spectacular hikes. You can also see the bighorn sheep in the Hemenway Valley Park, visit Lake Mead (only 15 minutes away), or go for a drink in the downtown. Other tours of the Dam's neighboring power plant are offered, too.

Summary Of Nearby Las Vegas Activities

  • For nature enthusiasts: Lake Mead, Mt. Charleston, Red Rock , Valley Of Fire, Death Valley National Park
  • For cycling enthusiasts: Red Rock Scenic Loop, River Mountains Loop Trail, Pittman Wash Trail
  • For hikers: Lake Mead, Grand Canyon, Mt. Charleston
  • For off-road driving enthusiasts: Valley Of Fire, Mojave, Red Rock Canyon
  • For campers: Red Rock Canyon, Mt. Charleston, Lake Mead National Recreation Area
  • For history enthusiasts: Hoover Dam, Valley Of Fire, Mt. Charleston, Grand Canyon, Bryce Canyon
  • For whitewater rafting: Colorado River

Interested In These Trips From Las Vegas?

Now is the best time to book a guided tour or just pick one of these locations and start your adventure. From the beauties of the popular Grand Canyon where you can enjoy breathtaking views to the trails at Mount Charleston, there are too many activities that can give you the recharge you deserve after a wild night in Las Vegas.
If you are an outdoor enthusiast who appreciates seeing more than just a hotel room and a full casino, you will absolutely love these attractions. All of the national parks, mountains, scenic viewpoints and other landmarks that are only a few hours away from the city and perfect for a day trip.
submitted by AzCanyonRafting to u/AzCanyonRafting [link] [comments]

2023.03.13 15:19 STLhistoryBuff Weekly Events Thread 3/13/23 - 3/19/23

Please, feel free to add any events below! Check out the Visitor's Guide for more things to do around town!
Looking to meet up with people? Check out Meetup St. Louis.

Be sure to continue scrolling past the Weekly Events for Trivia Nights, Live Music, Sporting Events, Local Comedy, and more!

St. Patrick's Day Events

Weekly Events

Sporting Events This Week Attractions Around the Area Comedy This Week
St. Louis Cardinals schedule Anheuser-Busch Brewery Funny Bone Comedy Club
St. Louis Blues schedule City Museum Helium Comedy Club
St. Louis City SC schedule Gateway Arch The Improv Shop
St. Louis Battlehawks schedule Missouri History Museum
St. Louis Billikens schedule National Blues Museum
Gateway Grizzlies schedule St. Louis Aquarium
Gateway Motorsports Park St. Louis Art Museum
St. Louis Ambush schedule St. Louis Science Center
St. Louis Zoo

Trivia Nights
Location Date/Time More Information
Bar K Tuesdays at 7:00 pm
City Foundry Thursdays 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm
Joey B's on the Hill Mondays 8:30 pm - 10:30 pm Trivia Details
Nick's Pub Mondays
Felix's Pizza Pub Tuesdays at 8:00 pm Trivia Details
Schlafly Brewpubs (Any Location) Tuesdays 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm Trivia Details
Rockwell Beer Co Tuesdays Trivia Details (Reservations required)
The Mack Tuesdays at 8:00 pm Trivia Details
The Pat Connolly Tavern Wednesdays at 7:00 pm
The Post Wednesdays 8:00 pm - 10:00 pm Trivia Details
Pieces Board Game Bar & Cafe Wednesdays Trivia Details
HandleBar Thursdays at 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm Trivia Details
Steve's Hot Dogs Tuesdays 7:30 pm - 9:30 pm Trivia Details

Live Music This Week
Music Venues Live Music Around Town
Blueberry Hill Duck Room 1860 Saloon
Chesterfield Amphitheater BB's Jazz, Blues & Soups
Delmar Hall Broadway Oyster Bar
Enterprise Center City Foundry
The Fabulous Fox Theatre Gallery Pub
The Factory Game 6 Honky Tonk
Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre Gaslight Lounge
Off Broadway The Heavy Anchor
Old Rock House Jazz St. Louis
The Pageant Joe's Cafe
Red Flag The Lot on the Landing
St. Louis Music Park McGurk's
St. Louis Symphony Concert Calendar SoFar St. Louis Secret performances around town
Stifel Theatre Venice Cafe
Yaquis on Cherokee

Recurring Outdoor Activities
Big Muddy Adventures – STL Riverfront Adventure Big Muddy Adventures was established in 2002. They are the first professional outfitteguiding company providing access to the wild wonders of the Middle Mississippi and Lower Missouri Rivers.
Gateway Arch Events There are a variety of things to do along the Mississippi River.
Hidden Valley Ski Resort Ziplining, scenic chairlift rides, and hiking trails opened during the summer. Skiing, snowboarding during the winter.
submitted by STLhistoryBuff to StLouis [link] [comments]

2023.03.11 22:30 SeniorFlyingMango Beltways

So I tried looking up these online but found vague information about why the following projects were scrapped:

  1. The Belt Expressway that was supposed to run from Blasdell and Niagara Falls but only LaSalle and Milestrip Expressways were only constructed for the project.

  1. The Lake Ontario State Parkway was supposed to connect to the Niagara Scenic Parkway and both were obviously built but never finished.

  1. The I-990 which was supposed to end near the City of Lockport but they stopped at Millersport.

  1. Also, why does it look like they were going to extend the 219 but you have to get off at Peters Road.

Does anybody know the reasons why these projects were never fully built, was it due to lack of money even though the projects were state-funded and the I-990 a federal project?
submitted by SeniorFlyingMango to Buffalo [link] [comments]

2023.03.10 17:39 Selgowiros2 St. Patrick, a false genocide and Paganism in Ireland.

Each year on March 17th, the internet is treated with narratives involving the non-canonical saint Patrick. These range from a perspective of civilizing the Irish in a Catholic context, to a contemporary Pagan one of memorializing a lost indigenous culture in Ireland. Both often contain flawed thinking but the contemporary Pagan side more than not tends to perpetuate ideas that require skewing of data to the point of non-sense.
Here are myths we've seen and points to refute them.
Why ever this 'point' is brought up in St. Patrick genocide arguments is beyond me, but here it is anyway. This actually came from author Enda Barth in the 1970s. Edna Barth was born in 1900 in Keokuk, Iowa. She worked as a librarian, a teacher, and an editor of books for young people before becoming the author. She died in 1981. Maewyn Succat, on Edna’s part, is a misreading of translated 7th Century CE hagiographical attempts to apply metaphorical names to Patrick.
Bishop Tírechán’s writings: “I have found four names for Patrick written in a book in the hands of Ultán, bishop of Connor: the saint (was named) Magonus, that is: famous, Succetus, that is: god of war; Patricius, that is: father of the citizens; Cothirthiacus, because he served four houses of druids; and one of them, by name Miliuc moccu Bóin, a druid, bought him, and he served him for seven years in all submission and in work of all kinds, and he made him a swineherd in the mountain valleys.”
Muirchú moccu Machtheni’s text: “Patrick son of Calfornius had four names: Sochet when he was born, Cothriche when he was a slave, Mauonius when he studied, Patrick when he was consecrated.”
The passage in question from Barth's own Shamrock's, Harps, Shillelaghs.
Three centuries before St. Patrick's time, the Roman Empire had conquered Britain. When Patrick was a boy, many of the people were Christians, living under Roman rule. The Roman Catholic religion, Roman customs, and Roman names all prevailed. The official language was Latin. Patrick's father was an official who worked for the Roman government. He was known by the Roman name Calpurnius. The family's name was English name was Succat, meaning clever in war. Patrick's first name was Maewyn. In his writing, he spoke of himself as patricius, meaning well-born in Latin. Patrick is the English form of this word. During Patrick's boyhood, the Roman Empire was near collapse and too weak to defend it's holdings in distant lands. Britain became an easy prey for raiders, including those who crossed the Irish sea from the land the Romans called Juverna. In English this word was Hibernia.
Obviously, Barth's text has some incredibly glaring issues that range from assuming English language was being applied here, to the misapplication of hagiographical data in a creative fashion. I'll also say that it seems cruel to not take Patricius at his word when he says in the first portion of his own Confessio (5th CE, the oldest document on him and an autobiography of sorts) "Ego Patricius".
The claim that Saint Patrick had banished all of the snakes and venomous creatures from Ireland was first recorded much later and is most likely lifted from from the life story of St. Hilaire who lived and died in the 4th CE (from the Miracles of Hilary by Venantius Fortunatus, 6th CE), who was said to have evicted the snakes on the Island of Gallinara (see (Ogden, D. (2013) “The Birth of The Christian Dragon,” in Drakōn Dragon Myth and serpent cult in the greek and Roman Worlds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 397 and p. 401-402.)
However, before Patrick enters the narrative, we have Bede in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (completed 731 CE) telling us that no reptiles live in Ireland.
Ireland, in breadth, and for wholesomeness and serenity of climate, far surpasses Britain; for the snow scarcely ever lies there above three days: no man makes hay in the summer for winter's provision, or builds stables for his beasts of burden. No reptiles are found there, and no snake can live there; for, though often carried thither out of Britain, as soon as the ship comes near the shore, and the scent of the air reaches them, they die. On the contrary, almost all things in the island are good against poison. In short, we have known that when some persons have been bitten by serpents, the scrapings of leaves of books that were brought out of Ireland, being put into water, and given them to drink, have immediately expelled the spreading poison, and assuaged the swelling.
The theme of 'harmful animal' removal is also naturally occurring in stories involving saints in Ireland according to Gerald of Wales (late 12th CE). This is the first mention of Patrick removing snakes, but notedly other harmful animals, from Ireland.
From the History and Topography of Ireland:
Of all kids of reptiles only those that are not harmful are found in Ireland. It has no poisonous reptiles. It has no serpents or snakes, toads or frogs, tortoises or scorpions. It has no dragons, It has, however, spiders, leeches and lizards – but they are entirely harmless. Some indulge in the pleasant conjecture that Saint Patrick and other saints of the land purged the island of all harmful animals. But it is more probable that from the earliest times, and long before the laying of the foundations of the Faith, the island was naturally without these as well as other things.
While these certainly come from a pro-English viewpoint, and Gerald of Wales may have been attempting to undermine any 'holiness' that Ireland may have claimed, these are the earliest instances recorded with snakes and Ireland. And they are clearly not a cryptic metaphor but actually snakes. When we ponder further, Christian ethnographies often don't pull punches in regards to it's colonial efforts, so why would the later Christian Irish decide utilize metaphor mid-effort when the damage was done and victory seemingly achieved?
We've also seen fallacious statements such as "Snakes were never in Ireland, therefore, they must be a metaphor". This is a ghoulish wishful thinking when the truth is demonstrable; Snakes were just meant to be snakes.

We've already seen how snakes cannot be a metaphor for the indigenous religion of Ireland, now we come to the main myth of the saint and holiday for contemporary Pagans. To this day, there is no archeological evidence that demonstrates this 'genocide' is a possibility. There is also no prescribed method in hagiographical accounts or folk legends (to my knowledge at the least) of how he did it, such as immolation, or beheading or hanging etc.
To fully debunk this myth, we must look at time and circumstances. Patrick lived and died in the 5th CE, with the oldest documentation in regards to him being his autobiographical account, his Confessio. We have two passages that mention baptisms on mass: 14:
In the knowledge of this faith in the Trinity, and without letting the dangers prevent it, it is right to make known the gift of God and his eternal consolation. It is right to spread abroad the name of God faithfully and without fear, so that even after my death I may leave something of value to the many thousands of my brothers and sisters – the children whom I baptised in the Lord.
Perhaps, however, when I baptised so many thousands of people, did I hope to receive even the smallest payment? If so, tell me, and I will return it to you. Or when the Lord ordained clerics everywhere through my poor efforts, and I gave this service to them for free, if I asked them to pay even for the cost of my shoes – tell it against me, and I will return it to you and more.
Patrick may have been exaggerating the numbers, which is evidenced by this passage then: 48:
You all know, and God knows, how I have lived among you since my youth, in true faith and in sincerity of heart. Towards the pagan people too among whom I live, I have lived in good faith, and will continue to do so. God knows that I have not been devious with even one of them, nor do I think of doing so, for the sake of God and his church. I would not want to arouse persecution of them and of all of us; nor would I want that the Lord’s name should be blasphemed on account of me; since it is written: “Woe to the one through whom the name of the Lord is blasphemed.”
This passage not only shows that he is at the least sympathetic towards the indigenous culture in some regards, he's also afraid to make waves due to Christianity's weak foot hold in Ireland at the time. This next passage however demonstrates personal and professional relationships that Patrick had with Pagan kings and their children.
At times I gave gifts to kings, over and above what I paid to their sons who travelled with me. Despite this, they took me and my companions prisoner, and very much wanted to kill me, but the time had not yet come. They stole everything they found in our possession, and they bound me in iron. On the fourteenth day, the Lord set me free from their power; all our possessions were returned to us for God’s sake, and for the sake of the close friendship we had had previously.
We see in his own words that he's non-violent but also cautious in his dealings, which contradict his later depictions. These examples show us that hagiographies post-Patrick can only be seen as viewpoint of him at the time of production, and not historical accounts to be trusted entirely, if at all. It is certainly interesting at how his character mutates through time, but because of this, later hagiographical accounts can now be put aside.
To re-state, Patrick died in 457 CE. We should perhaps look at High King Muirchertach Mac Muiredaig, who died in 534 CE. In Aided Muirchertaig Meic Erca (the Death of Muirchertaig Meic Erca, from 12th Century):
The king awoke and ordered his vision to be taken to his foster-brother Dub Da Rinn son of the druid Saignen, and Dub Da Rinn gave him the meaning of it thus: “This is the ship wherein thou hast been, to wit, the ship of thy princedom on the sea of life, and thou steering it. This is the ship that foundered, and thy life is to come to an end. This is the taloned griffin that has carried thee into her nest, to wit, the woman that is in thy company, to make thee intoxicated, and to bring thee with her into her bed, and to detain thee in the house of Cletech so that it will burn over thee. Now the griffin that fell with thee is the woman who will die by reason of thee. This then is the significance of that vision.”
Here we see that Muirchertach has associations with druids in court. This is produced in the same century as Gerald of Wales' account of snakes not being in Ireland and driven out by Patrick, but takes place 77 years post-Patrick.
We now come to the final and most important nail in the coffin of this debunking, which come from A guide to Early Irish Law by Fergus Kelly pp.60 :
According to the 6th century First Synod of Saint Patrick, oaths were sworn in his (Druids) presence. By the time of the law-texts (7th-8th centuries) it is clear that the advance of Christianity had reduced his position to that of sorcerer or witch-doctor. He is discriminated against in law: Bretha Crolige insists that the druid (along with the satirist and brigand) is entitled to sick-maintenance only at the level of Maire no matter how great his rank, privilege or other rights. However, he retains enough influence to secure inclusion among the doernemeds of Uraicecht Becc. It is difficult to make any definite statement about the druids' role in society during our period. No records survive from them and others' accounts of their activities may be based on ignorance or prejudice. Their magic spells were certainly feared: an 8th century hymn asks God for protection from the spells of women, blacksmiths and druids.
Kelly, brings up a few points; Druids, despite being heavily demoted in legislation, still existed 2-3 centuries post Patrick. The second is that by the 8th, we see a harder erosion and discrimination against indigenous religion in Ireland.
If Patrick committed a genocide, how is it that the 6th (a century later than Patrick) century Synod records their existence still, and how is that they retain a (demoted) position in court? The answer is clear. He did NOT commit such an act.
Regardless of one's opinion on Patrick and his efforts, we see these points debunked and can perhaps shift the topic from a wildly vague and false tragedy attributed to a folk saint to the unfortunate erosion through propaganda and legislation efforts. We should however consider discussing these topics away from a holiday meant to celebrate the Irish and the oppression their culture faced from the English.
TLDR: No, Patrick didn't mass murder an entire indigenous Irish population and this holiday isn't for pagans to co-opt trauma. It's to say "Fuck you" to the English and to celebrate the Irish.
submitted by Selgowiros2 to Paganacht [link] [comments]

2023.03.07 23:09 TouchTheCathyl Bill Clinton was Not a Realist


I thoroughly enjoyed the recent video explaining Realism, it did an excellent job codifying a lot of tropes of realist thought without talking in a circular fashion as I find other attempts to explain realism do. However I do want to address a criticism that I think comes not from factual error but merely perspective. Kraut is not an American, and that does give him some outside objectivity in understanding American politics but it also means he may misunderstand some subtleties.
The idea that Bill Clinton was a realist seems to be supported by the statement that the Clintons looked up to Henry Kissinger, a talking point I heard quite frequently during the 2016 campaign, especially in the New York Times, but which lacked a ton of context. The reason for this was that outlets like the Times saw Clinton's win as forgone and so were preparing themselves to be liberal critics of the Clinton administration, and foreign policy is easily Hillary Clinton's most enduring political legacy as she was Secretary of State under president Obama and given significant deference, which made it the most obvious avenue for scrutiny, and I suspect this is where this talking point grew from.
That's actually a point I want to bring up, the office of Secretary of State is a very powerful one in the United States, and exactly how powerful varies by the President. Some presidents appoint a close ally and give them clear orders of their vision, other presidents appoint a scholar they respect and rubber stamp their decisions. It can be just as critical to define phases of American foreign policy by the State Secretary as by the President. Kissinger himself was the architect of Nixon's policy as his State Secretary. Including our missing context: Henry Kissinger presided over the Yom Kippur War and the China Visit.

The Yom Kippur War

In 1973 a coalition of Panarabists made one last attempt to save their arab nationalist ideology (remember the Turkey videos?) by removing the Jewish state, the massive flaw in their vision. They invaded Israel during the Yom Kippur festivities, expecting the army to be busy celebrating. However despite the element of surprise and early victories, superior organization and equipment by the Israeli Defense Force countered and routed the Panarab offensive. After this conflict, the Arab states would slowly begin to accept Israel is here to stay as it became clear they would not be able to annex it after three failed attempts. That the current state of the Israeli Palestinian conflict is that the Israeli state is secure and the Palestinian state isn't is a product of the peace protocols following the Six Day and Yom Kippur wars. Before then, neither state was secure.
During the negotiations the US was faced with a challenge in that the belligerents could not engage in negotiations as negotiating with Israeli diplomats would implicitly mean recognizing Israel as a state, something which the armed forces in some of the belligerent nations had couped their leaders before in the past. Not to mention admitting defeat in the war was itself a coup risk. As a consequence of transitioning away from a world of empires and towards a world of Nation States, as well as the rise of ideological dictatorships, this was an increasingly common problem in the 20th century and continues today: States rarely ever voluntarily cede territory. It's just never in the self interest of a state to do so. So in an age where the moral right of a state to own territory is defined by national fraternity, the state must justify its borders or its territorial ambitions by asserting that they line up generally to the boundaries of a nation. This means other national identities must be either incorporated, placated, removed, or for this purpose, denied. You cannot deny a nationality's right to self determination, but you can deny that it is a nationality. You see this in Putin claiming Ukrainians are an integral part of the Russian nationality, or more pertinently the PanArabists refusing to acknowledge the existence of the Jewish state, essentially pretending that it's not there, in order to justify annexing it. Nationalistic ideologies are often deliberately delusional, and do not take kindly to being confronted with reality, as ideological compliance is necessary to maintain order, and the levers of power like the military or court will be staffed with true believers who will use their power to depose a heathen. Thus ideological dictatorships committed to national supremacy cannot ever admit to failure of the allegedly supreme nationality or ideology, such as in a war. To get around this and negotiate peace, Kissinger repeated a process of using third party mediators many times over that is still used today when conducting negotiations between belligerents that for whatever reason cannot contact each other directly, nicknamed Shuttle Diplomacy as it often involves frequent short range flights to third neutral countries. This method of conducting diplomacy is essential for allowing dialogue to be had in pretty much any modern ethnic conflict where there's too much national pride at stake for the negotiating parties to openly engage in negotiations, and in Kissinger's time, ended the Yom Kippur War and began one of the phases of peace negotiations that culminated in the Oslo Accords. Without Kissinger, there were no Oslo Accords, which were easily Clinton's proudest foreign policy legacy.


The decision to make a diplomatic mission to the People's Republic of China set in motion the uplifting of a fifth of the global population from Absolute Poverty by allowing China access to foreign export markets to build a modern industrial base with. And during the Clinton administration, there was still hope that a growing middle class would demand more political say to protect their wealth and force the Party to devolve more power. Francis Fukuyama believes this will still happen eventually. I do recall a video where Kraut dismisses this belief as having been naive, that revolutions are usually conducted an underclass with nothing to lose by overthrowing the state, but the Arab Spring has been exactly this and ended rather definitively in failure. The truth is that nobody knows how to deliberately and consistently concoct the conditions to create a democratic revolution in an undemocratic state and we're kind of just guessing, and the Middle Class Reform theory was very powerful in the 90s end-of-history zeitgeist as it was more or less what was believed to have caused the democratization of South Korea at the same time. And with the decision to open China, even if it never democratizes, has had a profound positive impact on life for the average person in the most populous country on earth. Those are real people whose lives were improved. It may be easy to forget those consequences, especially when we take for granted the industrial powerhouse that China looks like today, and have begun to regret giving the Chinese state access to the kind of wealth and legitimacy to engage in grotesque violations of human rights and threats of aggression against democratic states, all for its nationalsitic ideology.
That is somewhat poor comfort so far, I know it seems like a stretch, but I want to establish first that there are two possible explanations for why the Clintons acknowledge Kissinger, them being amoral realists seeking the securing of an American influence sphere, and them being pragmatic idealists admitting that without some of Kissinger's actions some of their flagship accomplishments wouldn't have been possible, and I intend to eliminate the former by citing President Clinton's own words and actions.

Ukaine, Russia, and Madeleine Albright

"When I first became president, I said that I would support Russian President Boris Yeltsin in his efforts to build a good economy and a functioning democracy after the dissolution of the Soviet Union—but I would also support an expansion of NATO to include former Warsaw Pact members and post-Soviet states. My policy was to work for the best while preparing for the worst. I was worried not about a Russian return to communism, but about a return to ultranationalism, replacing democracy and cooperation with aspirations to empire, like Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. I didn’t believe Yeltsin would do that, but who knew what would come after him?"
When the current Russian offensive in Ukraine started, a propaganda point Russia used to claim victimhood was that NATO had unfairly encroached upon their sphere of influence and surrounded them, intending to reduce Russia to a poker chip to use the metaphor from the video. Essentially, Putin accused Bill Clinton and George W. Bush of violating realist principles against Russia.
Bill Clinton immediately wrote a brief essay1 first a challenge to this point by illustrating his actual vision for a post cold war Russia, and second an obituary to his State Secretary and architect of his vision and the NATO expansion, Madeleine Albright.
Marie Jana Körbelová was born in Prague in 1937. In 1948 at the age of 11 her family fled the rapidly descending Iron Curtain for the United States, where from a young age she watched the Soviet Union cruelly repress her home and people and the Americans feel largely powerless or disinterested in stopping it. She studied international relations and wrote her dissertation on the Prague Spring of 1968, becoming the premier expert in Washington on the fundamental nature of the Warsaw Pact as an extractive relationship between a Russian imperial core and Eastern European colonies, and advocate for the freedom of Eastern Europe from the Soviet Empire. When Yugoslavia collapsed, Albright was one of the loudest lobbyists in Washington supporting NATO intervention in the former Yugoslav states to enforce peace.
Bill Clinton knew all of this when he appointed her. It is in fact exactly why he appointed her. Bill Clinton's understanding of Russia was deeply tied to his understanding of Russian history as having not developed the rule of law as Western Europe did due to mongol influence and isolation from the forces that created rule of law in Western Europe. In fact, these very ideas were discussed in Kraut's video on the Origins of Russian Authoritarianism. Bill Clinton believed that the end of the Soviet Union was Russia's chance to finally end Russian Lawlessness, and sought to create a system of incentives to allow Russia to integrate with Western Europe if it succeeded in doing so, while also preparing to deter aggression should Russia reject the hand he offered. This was the purpose of the NATO expansion, it may have violated Russia's supposed sphere of influence but he didn't care. Yes, expanding NATO is against realism. Bill Clinton is not a realist, he did it because he genuinely cared about the futures of the former Warsaw Pact states. It created insurance against the rise of a figure like Putin but also established the precedent that former NATO enemies can join if they change sufficiently. States like Russia, or Ukraine. What we are seeing in Ukraine, is what Clinton wanted for Russia, a debate between western and eastern outlooks won by the western faction seeking greater ties to NATO and the EU and better systems of democracy and law. Not poker chips to be used by the United States against Russia or China, but as nations of free minded people who wish to write their own destinies. Not a nation building project where the US would attempt to create democracy in Russia from the end of a bayonet. Ukraine has broken the yoke of Russian Lawlessness all on their own, and this war has only solidified the Ukrainian state and identity as something not Russian, and shown starkly the two different paths that opened after the end of the Soviet Union. Russia took one road and is becoming a hermit state, Ukraine took another and in her finest hour is awash in support and solidarity from the west.
Madeleine Albright, forgive the metaphor, but may well be the closest thing we had in real life to Princess Leia, if Ronald Reagan saw the Soviets as the Empire, then Albright was a diplomat who watched her home destroyed and so committed to dismantling the empire responsible through politics, diplomacy, and if necessary, war. She was so beloved as a liberator that Vaclav Havel wanted to name her as his successor to lead his party, which she declined believing she would serve Czechia better as a lobbyist in Washington. And she was in my view the greatest diplomat who has ever lived. She brought peace to the Balkans, something Bismarck and Metternich could not even conceive of. As Secretary of State she began the process of expanding NATO that was completed under George W Bush and his State Secretary Condoleeza Rice, defied 'vietnam syndrome' following the failure of the Somalia crisis, and used the might of the most powerful empire in history to protect millions of innocents in eastern europe from harm for generations to come and offer an olive branch with one hand to her former oppressors while preparing for them to refuse it with the other. Each day this war continues vindicates her decision to expand NATO and interfere in the Balkans. And it is a great disservice to her legacy to call her or the president she advised a realist. Albright's foreign policy was motivated first and foremost by the idea that American power ought to be used to protect the innocent, famously chastising Colin Powell, yes that Colin Powell, for being too bearish and cautious about interfering in the post-yugoslav conflicts. Bill Clinton's involvement in stopping the Sbrenica Genocide is something Kraut has acknowledged in a video shaming Noam Chomsky for denying it, and was motivated entirely by idealism. A desire to put an end to the centuries of conflict that have plagued southeastern europe since the Romans. (His recalcitrance was mostly due to a combination of fearing a repeat of the recent humiliation in Somalia, and suffering a sex scandal at home.) Hillary Clinton shared this view. As did Albright.

Hillary Clinton

Hillary Clinton would get her turn to shape foreign policy in some capacity as Obama's state secretary from 2009-2013, during which many of the decisions Kraut identified as idealistic bordering on neoconservative were enacted such as the Libya intervention2 , and she was in favor of endorsing the Arab Spring3 . More pertinently, after retiring in 2013 she also acknowledged that the 2014 invasion of Crimea was a warning that Russia would not stop and would not accept an independent and westernizing Ukraine4,5, a view that made her an enemy of Russian interests when she made a bid for the presidency in 2016. There is a reason why Russian propaganda campaigns clearly disfavored Clinton. And Russia was not the only party that despised Clinton's candidacy. Hillary Clinton was a supporter of the Trans Pacific Partnership, a long-negotiated plan to counterbalance China by improving economic ties with the countries surrounding it, creating a trade bloc of nations that would together be stronger against attempts by an increasingly authoritarian China to bully them. This shift reflected both recognition that China was becoming a threat to the American order despite earlier optimism, and it reflected the very same return to the Reagan-Bush encirclement strategy that Kraut has acknowledged President Biden for reviving. This was hated by american nationalists though as a corporate plot to take over the governments of the signatories, and when Donald Trump came to power and scrapped it, the Chinese party leadership breathed a sigh of relief.
These are not the actions of realists. Realists are not enemies of Russia. If Hillary Clinton was a realist, Russia would consider her an ally for wanting to respect Russia's sphere of influence and poker player status and have favored her with their 2016 propaganda efforts. I do not wish to imply that Russian interference elected president Trump, or to deny the free and fairness of the 2016 US presidential election, those are controversial issues that do not affect the relevant point: It should be abundantly clear from the stated viewpoint of Russian subsidized propaganda outlets such as RT that Clinton was no ally of Russia. The Clintons are not realists, that is exactly what Vladimir Putin detests about them.
TL;DR: Just read what Bill Clinton wrote in citation 1. he's a smarter man than I, and these are not the words of a realist.
citation 1:
citation 2:
citation 3:
citation 4:
citation 5:
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2023.03.06 13:45 boutell New US CCS chargers report for February 2023

Here are all of the new US CCS (Level 3 fast-charging) stations that rolled out in February 2023, according to the Department of Energy. These chargers are suitable for most new EVs on the market, except for:
  1. Tesla drivers who haven't bought the official CCS adapter yet. Certain older Teslas need additional work done to accept the adapter.
  2. Leaf owners like me, and some owners of older cars that also use CHAdeMO. If you drive a Leaf, or an older CHAdeMO car, see my matching post in leaf.
There were 194 CCS charge points added in January 2023. That shows continued growth month after month. For comparison, there were only 87 new CCS charge points in February 2022.
If you'd like to know about new chargers along your routes right away, or just prefer not to check this list monthly when new openings are rare in your area, I've set up a free service that provides email notifications as soon as they open. You can sign up at Or not! I don't really have a business plan here, I built it to help EV owners like myself.

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Broadway Glendale, CA 91210 Glendale Galleria 23 DCFC 100 W. Broadway Glendale, CA 91210 Glendale Galleria DCFC 24 100 W. Broadway Glendale, CA 91210 2700 Carson St 2724 Carson St Lakewood, CA 90712 Chase Bank - 3502 Katella Ave 3502 Katella Ave Los Alamitos, CA 90720 Cal State Los Angeles - Parking Structure E 5151 State University Dr Los Angeles, CA 90032 Manhattan Village at Sushi Bao 3110 N Sepulveda Blvd Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 VW HYUNDAI CPE250 #1 4620 McHenry Ave Modesto, CA 95356 VW HYUNDAI CPE250 #2 4620 McHenry Ave Modesto, CA 95356 Amazon Fresh Murrieta-MurrietaHotSprings DCFC 92563 Murrieta Hot Springs Rd Murrieta, CA 92563 ONTARIO HYUNDAI VEHICLE DISPLY2 1307 Kettering Dr Ontario, CA 91761 ONTARIO HYUNDAI VEHICLE DISPLY1 1307 Kettering Dr Ontario, CA 91761 Orick 121200 US Hwy 101 Orick, CA 95555 RINCON CENTER STATION 2 121 Spear St San Francisco, CA 94105 RINCON CENTER STATION 1 121 Spear St San Francisco, CA 94105 The Masonic P3 DCFC 1111 California Street San Francisco, CA 94108 Webster Street Medical Center Southwest DCFC 2100 Webster Street San Francisco, CA 94115 Webster Street Medical Center Northeast DCFC 2100 Webster Street San Francisco, CA 94115 Stonestown Galleria Peet's DCFC 3251 20Th Ave San Francisco, CA 94132 7037 – San Jose, CA (2375 Quimby Road) 2375 Quimby Road San Jose, CA 95122 DS-73 14061 Riverside Dr Sherman Oaks, CA 91423 Green Tree Inn 14173 Green Tree Blvd Victorville, CA 92395 Amazon Fresh Friendly Hills Marketplace 02 DCFC 15311 Whittier Blvd Whittier, CA 90603 ➡ CO KUM & GO DACONO PL2 127 Laura Way Dacono, CO 80514 KUM & GO DACONO PL1 127 Laura Way Dacono, CO 80514 Five Points Parking Lot 2530 N Washington St Denver, CO 80205 DC CORRIDOR ESTES PARK PL3 500 Big Thompson Avenue Estes Park, CO 80517 DC CORRIDOR ESTES PARK PL4 500 Big Thompson Avenue Estes Park, CO 80517 Peak Kia - Service Center 5077 S Wadsworth Blvd Littleton, CO 80123 DC CORRIDOR WHEAT RIDGE PL1 5071 Kipling Street Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 DC CORRIDOR WHEAT RIDGE PL2 5071 Kipling Street Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 DC CORRIDOR WHEAT RIDGE PL3 5071 Kipling Street Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 DC CORRIDOR WHEAT RIDGE PL4 5071 Kipling Street Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 ➡ CT Cadillac of Greenwich 144 Railroad Avenue Greenwhich, CT 06830 The SoNo Collection Level P2 Valet DCFC 100 North Water St Norwalk, CT 06854 ➡ DE Wegmans 371 Buckley Mill Road DCFC 371 Buckley Mill Road, Wilmington, DE 19807 ➡ FL Tanger Outlets - Daytona Beach, Daytona Beach Banana Republic Factory DCFC 1100 Cornerstone Boulevard Daytona Beach, FL 32114 Tanger Outlets - Daytona Beach, Daytona Beach West Entrance DCFC 1100 Cornerstone Boulevard Daytona Beach, FL 32114 FPL EVOLUTION BRIGHTLINE 2 212 City View Dr Fort Lauderdale, FL 33311 FPL EVOLUTION BRIGHTLINE 1 202 City View Dr Fort Lauderdale, FL 33311 FPL EVOLUTION BRIGHTLINE 3 212 City View Dr Fort Lauderdale, FL 33311 KEY HYUNDAI SHOWROOM 4660-200 Southside Blvd Jacksonville, FL 32216 MBUSA Jacksonville 13470 International Parkway Jacksonville, FL 32218 JNKNS JACKSONVI DC FAST 1 11107 Atlantic Blvd. Jacksonville, FL 32225 City Mattress 2421 Tarpon Bay Blvd Naples, FL 34119 ➡ GA 630 Crane Creek Drive (US-4CR-4NG-1A) 630 Crane Creek Drive Augusta, GA 30907 630 Crane Creek Drive (US-4CR-4NG-1B) 630 Crane Creek Drive Augusta, GA 30907 630 Crane Creek Drive (US-4CR-4NG-1C) 630 Crane Creek Drive Augusta, GA 30907 630 Crane Creek Drive (US-4CR-4NG-2A) 630 Crane Creek Drive Augusta, GA 30907 630 Crane Creek Drive (US-4CR-4NG-2B) 630 Crane Creek Drive Augusta, GA 30907 630 Crane Creek Drive (US-4CR-4NG-2C) 630 Crane Creek Drive Augusta, GA 30907 Autel - Molly's Food & Fuel 113 Hilley Rd Crawfordville, GA 30631 STIVERS SUBARU ST 1 1950 Orion Dr Decatur, GA 30033 STIVERS SUBARU ST 2 1950 Orion Dr Decatur, GA 30033 NeSmith Chevrolet Buick GMC 1910 E Chenny St Jesup, GA 31546 GEORGIA POWER LOGANVILLE DC1 4752 Athens Hwy Loganville, GA 30052 GEORGIA POWER LOGANVILLE DC2 4752 US-78 Loganville, GA 30052 Target Marietta #T2121 1401 Johnson Ferry Rd Marietta, GA 30062 EDVOYHYU SALES PARKING 1 2098 Cobb Pkwy SE Smyrna, GA 30080 ➡ HI Ala Moana Center 15 DCFC 1450 Ala Moana Blvd Honolulu, HI 96814 Walmart 5274 (Pearl City, HI) 1131 Kuala St Pearl City, HI 96782 ➡ IA Sidney Downtown 505 Filmore Street Sidney, IA 51652 ➡ ID Loop - Northern Lights Inc Headquarters 421 Chevy St Sagle, ID 83860 ➡ IL Town & Country Center DCFC 02 325 E Palantine Rd Arlington Heights, IL 60004 PRIDE of Aurora 713 DCFC 1395 Butterfield Road Aurora, IL 60502 Water Tower Place DCFC 835 N Michigan Ave Chicago, IL 60611 Pride of Geneva DCFC 1166 E State Street Geneva, IL 60134 HYUNDAI NORTH CPE250 A 901 S Milwaukee Ave Libertyville, IL 60048 HYUNDAI NORTH CPE250 B 901 S Milwaukee Ave Libertyville, IL 60048 WORLD HYUNDAI LEVEL 3-01 5337 Miller Cir Dr Matteson, IL 60443 Amazon Fresh Naperville-Ogden DCFC 1351 E Ogden Ave Naperville, IL 60563 Chase Bank - 4223 N Harlem Ave 4223 N Harlem Ave Norridge, IL 60706 Commerce Bank - Shiloh 4400 Green Mount Crossing Dr Shiloh, IL 62269 Woodgrove Festival Shopping Mall 1001 75th St Woodridge, IL 60517 ➡ IN RAY SKILLMAN CPE250 - SALES 1300 S U.S Hwy 31 Greenwood, IN 46143 WEBB AUTO GROUP BACK LOT 9236 Indianapolis Blvd Highland, IN 46322 WEBB AUTO GROUP FRONT LOT 9236 South Indianapolis Blvd Highland, IN 46322 GM - RAY SKILLMAN GMC TRUCK 8424 US 31 S INDIANAPOLIS, IN 46227 ➡ KS EZ Go - Philipps 66 Belle Plaine 770 N I-35, Milepost 26 Belle Plaine, KS 67013 SHARP DC FAST 01 3149 SW S Kansas Ave Topeka, KS 66611 HATCHETT FRONT LOT 757 N Tyler Rd Wichita, KS 67212 ➡ KY MOORE HYUNDAI DON MOORE 1 3200 Villa Point Owensboro, KY 42303 ➡ MA AUBURN HYUNDAI CHARGER #2 12 & 20 Southbridge St Auburn, MA 01501 AUBURN HYUNDAI CHARGER #1 735 Southbridge St Auburn, MA 01501 SMITH MERCEDES SMITH 01 420 River St Haverhill, MA 01832 SMITH MERCEDES SMITH 2 420 River St Haverhill, MA 01832 ➡ MD BGE - Pennsylvania Ave 1700 Pennsylvania Ave Baltimore, MD 21217 DARCARSKIA CPE250-1 12210 Cherry Hill Rd Silver Spring, MD 20904 Marlboro Crossroads 5700 Crain Hwy Upper Marlboro, MD 20772 ➡ ME IRVINGOIL ME-BNGR-L3-0002 301 Odlin Rd Bangor, ME 04401 IRVINGOIL ME-BNGR-L3-0001 301 Odlin Rd Bangor, ME 04401 ➡ MI 403 N Huron St. Parking Lot 403 N Huron St Cheboygan, MI 49721 Witbecks Family Foods 1026 N McEwan St Clare, MI 48617 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-2A) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-2C) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-1C) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-1B) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-2B) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-1A) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 WAW HYUNDAI CUSTOMER LOT#1 2845 E Saginaw St Lansing, MI 48912 WAW HYUNDAI CUSTOMER LOT#2 2845 E Saginaw St Lansing, MI 48912 Graff Cadillac Buick GMC Mt. Pleasant 116 N Mission St Mt Pleasant, MI 48858 Jule - Village of Port Austin 8861 Line St Port Austin, MI 48467 Burger King - Traverse City 2504 US 31 North Traverse City, MI 49686 ➡ MN Cobblestone Court Shopping Center DCFC 14150 Nicollet Ave Burnsville, MN 55337 GRAND RAPIDS CHEVROLET GMC INC 1610 SOUTH POKEGAMA AVENUE GRAND RAPIDS, MN 55744 Apple Auto 7200 Lakeville Boulevard Lakeville, MN 55044 ➡ MO 7950 State Hwy K Cape Girardeau 7950 State Hwy K Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 2017 Perryville Rd Cape Girardeau, MO 2017 Perryville Rd Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 2505 Veterans Memorial Dr Cape Girardeau, MO 2505 Veterans Memorial Dr Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 JLRCHESTERFIELD WALLBOX OUTSIDE 1 Jaguar Land Rover Way DC CHARGER North Park Chesterfield, MO 63005 LEVITON MACADOODLES 1 6050 Crossing Drive Osage Beach, MO 65065 LEVITON MACADOODLES 2 6050 Crossing Drive Osage Beach, MO 65065 SCH5701 SCH5701LEV3S 5701 Veterans Memorial Pkwy St. Peters, MO 63376 SCH5701 SCH5701LEV3N 5701 Veterans Memorial Pkwy St. Peters, MO 63376 ➡ NC Wegmans 11051 Ligon Mill Road DCFC 11051 Ligon Mill Road Wake Forest, NC 27587 ➡ ND NDAREC NDARECL3 3201 Nygren Dr NW Mandan, ND 58554 ➡ NJ NEW CHARGERS FRONT 3 180 US-202 Flemington, NJ 08822 NEW CHARGERS SIDE LV3 180 US-202 Flemington, NJ 08822 Commons at Holmdel DCFC 2130 State Route 35 Holmdel, NJ 07733 Gateway Shopping Center (NJ) DCFC 1014 Route 9 Old Bridge, NJ 08857 HYUNDAI DELIVER CHARGER 3 405 NJ-72 Stafford Township, NJ 08050 Pine Belt Cadillac Of Toms River 71 Route 37 East Toms River, NJ 08753 ➡ NY Wegmans 675 Alberta Drive DCFC 675 Alberta Drive Amherst, NY 14226 Amazon Fresh at Kohl's Center DCFC 3620 Long Beach Road Oceanside, NY 11572 Wegmans 3325 West Genesee Street DCFC 3325 West Genesee Street Syracuse, NY 13219 Thorpe's GMC 5964 MAIN ST TANNERSVILLE, NY 12485 EVolve NY Tully 7073 Route 281 Tully, NY 13159 ➡ OH Giant Eagle 3503 Polaris OH 9151 Columbus Pike Lewis Center, OH 43035 CLASSIC HYUNDAI WEST SIDE 8460 Tyler Boulevard Mentor, OH 44060 ➡ OK ADS-TEC - OnCue #129 5251 E Waterloo Rd Edmond, OK 73034 ➡ OR 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-1A) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-1B) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-1C) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-2A) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-2B) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-2C) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 ➡ PA KELLY HYUNDAI HYUNDAI LEVEL 3 254 Pittsburgh Rd Butler, PA 16002 BDHDELIVERY CUSTOMER PRKNG 3901 Hecktown Road, Easton, (18045), PA Easton, PA 18045 BDHDELIVERY STATION1 3813 Hecktown Rd Easton, PA 18045 Red Lion Plaza DCFC 9950 Roosevelt Boulevard Philadelphia, PA 19115 PIAZZA HYUNDAI LEVEL 3 RIGHT 1360 Wilmington Pike West Chester, PA 19382 PIAZZA HYUNDAI LEVEL 3 LEFT 1358 Old Wilmington Pike West Chester, PA 19382 ➡ RI Providence Place DCFC One Providence Place Providence, RI 02903 ➡ SC HOA CHARGERS 1 HYUNDAI CHRGR 1 1925 Pearman Dairy Rd Anderson, SC 29621 HOA CHARGERS 1 HYUNDAI CHRGR 2 1925 Pearman Dairy Rd Anderson, SC 29621 ➡ TN Andrews Cadillac Company 1 CADILLAC DRIVE BRENTWOOD, TN 37027 Park Motor Sales 919 Nashville Highway Columbia, TN 38401 ➡ TX MBBEAUMONT ABB STATION 1865 I-10 S Beaumont, TX 77707 PRINCIPLEAUTO22 STATION EV 1 32453 Frontage Rd Boerne, TX 78006 Shops at Clearfork - Orange Garage 5188 Monahans Ave Fort Worth, TX 76109 MB OF SANJUAN CPE250 01 400 E Expressway 83 San Juan, TX 78589 ➡ VA Sustain Abingdon 253 Depot Square SW Abingdon, VA 24210 HHMI APARTMENT C 1 19731 Janelia Farm Blvd Ashburn, VA 20147 Amazon Fresh at Lorton Marketplace 02 DCFC 9409 Lorton Market Street Lorton, VA 22079 Sudley Manor Square DCFC 7807 Sudley Road Manassas, VA 20109 HALL HYUNDAI NN STATION 1 12872 Jefferson Ave Newport News, VA 23608 HALL HYUNDAI NN STATION 2 12872 Jefferson Ave Newport News, VA 23608 ➡ WA Frederickson Place - Frederickson, WA DCFC 17710 Canyon Road East Puyallup, WA 98375 South Park 8461 Dallas Ave S Seattle, WA 98108 ➡ WI AMATO GLENDALE AMATO GLENDALE 5200 N Port Washington Rd Glendale, WI 53217 AMATO GLENDALE AMATO GLENDALE2 5200 N Port Washington Rd Glendale, WI 53217 AMATO GLENDALE FRONT N80W12650 Leon Rd Menomonee Falls, WI 53051 INT. AUTOS BMW NW CHARGER 2400 S 106th St West Allis, WI 53227 
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2023.03.06 07:21 Significant-Notice- Is Economics Self-Correcting?

The subtitle of that article is Replications in the American Economic Review, and the authors are Jörg Ankel-Peters, Nathan Fiala, and Florian Neubauer. Here is the abstract:
Replication and constructive controversy are essential for scientific progress. This paper reviews the impact of all replications published as comments in the American Economic Review between 2010 and 2020. We investigate the citation rates of comments and whether a comment affects its original paper’s citation rates. We find that most comments are barely cited, and they have no impact on the original papers’ subsequent citations. This finding holds for original papers for which the comment diagnoses a substantive problem. We conclude from these citation patterns that replications do not update the economics literature. In an online opinion survey, we elicited viewpoints of both comment authors and original authors and find that in most cases, there is no consensus regarding the replication’s success and to what extent the original paper’s contribution sustains. This resonates with the conventional wisdom that robustness and replicability are hard to define in economics.
If you see a critical comment in the AER, the odds that it is correct, and significantly so, are really pretty high, given the barriers to getting in. Yet no one seems to care. (Note that the lack of caring is connected to the Bayesian inference that the published critical comments likely are correct.) This is to me one of the more significant indictments of the economics professions as we know it today. And it is not obvious how we might change this state of affairs.
Here is the argument in tweet storm form.
The post Is Economics Self-Correcting? appeared first on Marginal REVOLUTION.


]( - In reply to rsm. My takeaway from Fix's articles: why can't rsm - Why does the economic consensus support raising interest rates rsm - Did the Great Depression fix itself?by Chuck Kotlarz

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2023.03.06 06:19 theColonelsc2 Peter Skene Ogden, one of the most important and turbulent personalities in the North American Fur Trade.

Peter Skene Ogden, one of the most important and turbulent personalities in the North American Fur Trade. submitted by theColonelsc2 to ogden [link] [comments]

2023.03.06 00:05 creemetismami Peter Skene Ogden, one of the most important and turbulent personalities in the North American Fur Trade.

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2023.03.04 05:21 healthylifeblogs The Surreal Beauty of Niagara Falls

The Surreal Beauty of Niagara Falls
The Surreal Beauty of Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls is a breathtaking natural wonder that straddles the border between the United States and Canada. With its stunning views, roaring waterfalls, and rich history, Niagara Falls is a popular tourist destination that attracts millions of visitors every year. Here is a closer look at the beauty of Niagara Falls.
Niagara Falls has been a popular destination for centuries, with the first European explorers visiting the falls in the 1600s. The falls were also an important location for Indigenous peoples, who considered the area sacred and used it for trade and commerce. Today, Niagara Falls is a popular destination for tourists from all over the world, with numerous attractions, hotels, and restaurants in the surrounding area.
Niagara Falls is a truly awe-inspiring sight, with three distinct waterfalls – the Horseshoe Falls, American Falls, and Bridal Veil Falls – that cascade over a steep cliff and into the Niagara River. Visitors can experience the falls from numerous viewpoints, including the Niagara Falls State Park in New York, the Niagara Parks in Ontario, Canada, and from boats that take visitors right up to the base of the falls. At night, the falls are lit up in a rainbow of colors, creating a truly magical experience.
Natural Beauty:
Beyond the falls themselves, Niagara Falls is surrounded by natural beauty, with lush forests, tranquil lakes, and scenic hiking trails. Visitors can explore the surrounding area on foot or by bike, or take a scenic helicopter tour to get a bird's eye view of the falls and the surrounding landscape. There are also numerous parks and nature reserves in the area, including the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve and the Niagara Falls State Park.
Niagara Falls is a hub of activity, with numerous attractions and activities for visitors of all ages. Some of the most popular activities include boat tours of the falls, zip-lining, hiking, and exploring the nearby towns and villages. The area is also home to numerous casinos, museums, and amusement parks, making it a great destination for families and groups.
Niagara Falls is a natural wonder that is sure to leave visitors in awe of its beauty and power. Whether you're a nature lover, history buff, or thrill-seeker, Niagara Falls is a must-visit destination that offers something for everyone. With its stunning views, rich history, and numerous activities and attractions, Niagara Falls is a truly magical place that should be on every traveler's bucket list.
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